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This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia, NW. Africa, Ethiopia, Australia.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs or small shrubs, up to 1.5 m tall; stems erect, branched, 4-angled; the whole plant glabrescent or scabrous, or sparsely to densely pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, sometimes alternate towards the top of stem, sessile, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 20–85 × 7–35 mm, base rounded, somewhat clasping, apex acute, entire, sparsely to densely pubescent or glabrous or with scabrid margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in 1-several flowered cymes forming terminal spikes up to 30 cm; bracts 5–11 × 3–5 mm, broadly lanceolate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx tube 6–6.5 mm, 12-ribbed; sepals ± 1 mm, broadly triangular; epicalyx erect, 1.5–2 mm, exceeding the sepals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals purple to rose-purple, oblanceolate, 6–9 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens and style exserted
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule oblong.
Ecology
Damp mountain slopes, gorges, rocky water streams, river banks; alt. 550–1500 m
Phenology
June-Sept.
Distribution
Widely distributed worldwide; N Africa west through Arabia to Europe and east to Iran, Afghanistan to India and China; North America; also recorded from southern Africa. Common in northern Iraq in the mountains, but also found in the foothills and the desert plateau region.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Manchuria, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, New South Wales, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tasmania, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Victoria, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile South, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Lythrum salicaria L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 1, 2009 Behboudi [4266], Iran K000566240
Day, C.D. [751], Turkey K000341657
Cope, T.A. [RBG 187], Great Britain K000914227

First published in Sp. Pl.: 446 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1990). Flora of Australia 18: 1-349. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmondson, J.R. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Iraq 5(2): 1-349. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2013). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 16 Taxon 62: 1355-1360.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Polatschek, A. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 51: 1-9. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Urgamal, M., Oyuntsetseg, B., Nyambayar, D. & Dulamsuren, C. (2014). Conspectus of the vascular plants of Mongolia: 1. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Boiss., Fl. Or. 2: 738 (1872);
  • Dar in Nasir & Ali, Fl. Pak. 78: 7 (1975);
  • Gilbert in Fl. Ethiop. & Eritr. 2(1): 403 (2000);
  • Haining Qin & Graham in Fl. China 13: 276 (2007);
  • Koehne in Engl., Pflanzenr. 1V. 216 (1903);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 446 (1753) ;
  • Naanaie, Fl. of Iran (in Farsi) 67: 17 (2010).
  • Polatschek in Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 51: 5 (1968);
  • Post, Fl. Syria, Palest. Sinai 1: 470 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • ( 2021-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • George, A.S. (ed.) (1990). Flora of Australia 18: 1-349. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2013). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 16 Taxon 62: 1355-1360.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Ovchinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1981). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 6: 1-725. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Polatschek, A. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 51: 1-9. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Urgamal, M., Oyuntsetseg, B., Nyambayar, D. & Dulamsuren, C. (2014). Conspectus of the vascular plants of Mongolia: 1. Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 13: 1-548. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/