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This species is accepted, and its native range is Texas to Central America, Caribbean. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.
Datura stramonium

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2600 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, arbusto
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Plant up to at least 1 m tall but often much smaller, glabrescent
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole c. 1–5.5 cm long; leaf-blade ± broadly ovate, 5–17 x 3–14 cm, asymmetrically cuneate at the base, acuminate at the apex, with irregularly and coarsely dentate margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2.5–5 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white, 4.5–10.5 cm long, lobes mucronate at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 3–4 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules erect, globose or ovoid, 2–4 x 1.5–3.5 cm, densely prickly and minutely pubescent between the prickles, dehiscent by 4 equal valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds black, c. 3–4 mm long.
Distribution
N1, 2; S1 native to North America, now widely distributed in tropical and temperate regions.
Ecology
Altitude range 150–1500 m.
Vernacular
Adura medu, booc madow (Somali)

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
chamico, chamico morado, estramonio, ñongué, ñoque, manzano espinoso, nongué, pedro noche, datira, carda, herb hedionda

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: “in America nunc vulgaris per Europam”, Herb. Hort. Clifford 55, Datura 1 (BM!, lecto. designated by D’Arcy in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 624 (1973)). [See Hadkins et al. (1997) for problems associated with selection of lectotype & Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 476 (2007)]
Morphology General Habit
Annual herbs up to 2(–4) m high, occasionally undershrubs, erect or spreading, sometimes unpleasantly aromatic.
Morphology Branches
Branches light green, brownish, yellow or purplish, smooth, occasionally hollow, glabrescent to pilose with multicellular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, often dark green, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate or rhomboidal, (5–)8.6–15(–17) × 4.5–13(–15) cm, bases obliquely cuneate to cordate, margins sinuate-dentate with 2–6 deep acute lobes which often lacerate, apices acute to acute/acuminate, glabrescent to moderately pilose; petioles 2.2–7 cm long. Flowers solitary, axillary, erect; pedicels (3–)4–10 mm and erect in flower, elongating to 8–15(–25) mm in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cylindrical, (26–)30–45(–50) × 6–8 mm, sparsely pilose externally, lobes broadly to narrowly triangular, 3–10 × 1.5–6 mm, apices acute, margins pilose, base circumsessile forming a ridged collar or flange 3.5–8 mm diameter and 1.5–5 mm broad
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla greenish, yellow, cream, white, pale or dull purple with prominent veins, tubular below becoming funnel- or trumpet-shaped above, 6–8.2(–9) cm long, glabrescent externally; tube long and slender, with 5 terminal acuminate to caudate teeth or tails 1.3–8 × 0.5–2 mm at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens occasionally visible in corolla throat; filaments free for 2–3 cm; anthers oblong, yellow, yellow with purple margins or purplish, (2.5–)4–7 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary dark brown, softly spinose, (2.5–)3–7 × 2.8–6 mm; style dark brown, (3.8–)4.2–6 cm long; stigma clavate, 1.5–3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit longitudinally ovoid usually spinous capsules, green yellowish or brownish, 2.5–5 × 1.8–4 cm (including spines), dehiscing by 4 valves splitting from the apex and reflexing to expose seeds; valves usually covered with acicular and sharply pointed unequal spines, 7–15 × 0.5–1.8 mm basally, smooth and glabrous but shortly pilose near base, occasionally valves smooth (but not in Flora area); subtended by the persistent remains of the calyx 6–18 × 4–8 mm, usually reflexed to the pedicel; fruiting pedicels elongated, stout, erect
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds black or dark(rarely pale)-brown, reniform, occasionally discoid, 2.5–3.5 × 2.2–3.5 mm, not ridged, minutely and densely punctate, with distinct yellow or whitish elaisome
Figures
Fig 8/1–5, p 41
Ecology
A common weed of disturbed ground, waste places, gardens and plantations, in pastures, arable land, woodland and forest fringes; 550–2400 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
With regard to D. wallichii, there are 2 specimens labelled 2637 in K-WALL; specimen a) was collected in Nepal and b) from Bihar in northern India. Both seem good examples of D. stramonium and are presumably isosyntypes; a third specimen labelled 2639c in the Kew General Herbarium is also a good specimen of this species. Though typically characterised by spiny capsules, a number of variants with smooth capsules occur and some of these have been formally recognised. Safford (1921) reported this to be a variable character, and that both spiny and smooth capsules could be found on the same plant with the gene for prickles being dominant. As implied by its epithet, D. inermis is such a smooth-capsuled variant; all other features of this species described or illustrated on Jacquin’s plate imply that it is conspecific with D. stramonium. Smooth capsules are not thought to occur in the Floral area. Commonly known as Jimson- or Jamestown- weed, D. stramonium has been reported as a contaminant of some 40 different commercial crops in around 100 countries (cf. Hunziker, 2001), with its seeds becoming a toxic contaminant of many seed and grain harvests. All parts of the plant are rich in tropane alkaloids for which species is an important commercial source; they include hyoscyamine, hyoscine and atropine. This species is also the source of the drug stramonium and is now widely used medicinally in the Old World. Its poisonous qualities are well-known and are summarised by Verdcourt & Trump (1969).  Local populations are said to use it to induce drugged sleep, and to make intoxicant beer ( T 3); it is reported to be lethal to cattle and goats ( K 1) and is particularly dangerous when the plant occurs as a weed of crops such as wheat and maize when the seed can contaminate the resultant flour (cf. K 3). The seeds are also used to drive soldier ants away from native houses ( T 3), presumably through the beneficial mutualism existing between the seed elaisomes which attract the harvester ants responsible for their dispersal (Hunziker 2001).
Distribution
Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Range: Probably native to Mexico, now a pantropical weed

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel 5–15 mm long, slender to ± stout, ± puberulent, in fruit elongating to 30 mm and stout
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary up to 5 × 4 mm, pyramidal or ovoid, with ± long, fleshy appendages (or smooth outside the Flora Zambesiaca area), puberulent and glandular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 3.5–6.8(7) cm long, straight, glabrous
Note
Common name: “Thorn Apple”. Cultivated mainly for medicinal purposes. A widespread and common weed of cultivation and disturbed ground. Whole plant poisonous. Chromosome number: 2n=24.
Distribution
Botswana. BOT N, BOT SE, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZAM S, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ T, MOZ MS, MOZ GI, MOZ M Native to North America, now almost cosmopolitan, widely naturalized in the tropics and subtropics. Malawi Mozambique Zimbabwe Zambia
Morphology General Habit
Erect, usually ± dichotomously branched, annual, biennial or more rarely short-lived perennial herb, sometimes ± bushy, less often a shrub, 0.2–1.5(2) m high, unpleasantly scented, green or tinged purple or violet. Erect, usually ± dichotomously branched, annual, biennial or more rarely short-lived perennial herb, sometimes ± bushy, less often a shrub, 0.2–1. 5(2) m high, unpleasantly scented, green or tinged purple or violet
Morphology Branches
Branches striate and ± sulcate, ± glabrous or with ± sparse hairs, more abundant on the young parts and near the nodes, and often glandular. Branches striate and ± sulcate, ± glabrous or with ± sparse hairs, more abundant on the young parts and near the nodes, and often glandular
Morphology Leaves
Leaves solitary, occasionally geminate; petiole 1–9.5 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 3.5–20 × 1–15.5 cm, ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic or ± oblong to ± lanceolate, base cuneate to ± rounded, truncate or ± cordate, occasionally attenuate, and often dimidiate, sometimes decurrent into the petiole, apex ± acute or acuminate, coarsely and sharply incised-dentate to repand-dentate with irregular, obtuse to acuminate teeth, rarely ± entire, at first minutely pubescent, later sparsely so, more densely towards the base, at or near the margins and on the nerves, to ± glabrous, the lateral nerves extending to the margin. Leaves solitary, occasionally geminate; petiole 1–9.5 cm long; lamina membranous or papyraceous, 3.5–20 × 1–15.5 cm, ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic or ± oblong to ± lanceolate, base cuneate to ± rounded, truncate or ± cordate, occasionally attenuate, and often dimidiate, sometimes decurrent into the petiole, apex ± acute or acuminate, coarsely and sharply incised-dentate to repand-dentate with irregular, obtuse to acuminate teeth, rarely ± entire, at first minutely pubescent, later sparsely so, more densely towards the base, at or near the margins and on the nerves, to ± glabrous, the lateral nerves extending to the margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, inserted in the forks of the branches, erect; pedicel 5–15 mm long, slender to ± stout, ± puberulent, in fruit elongating to 30 mm and stout. Flowers solitary, inserted in the forks of the branches, erect.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 2.5–5 × 0.4–1 cm, 5-angled to 5-ribbed, ± puberulent, more densely so towards the base and on the lobes, especially at the margins inside and out, drying with somewhat prominent longitudinal nerves, the tube little or not inflated and slightly wider at the base; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 2–4 mm, triangular to lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate or cuspidate; in fruit the flange up to 13 mm wide, reflexed. Calyx 2.5–5 × 0.4–1 cm, 5-angled to 5-ribbed, ± puberulent, more densely so towards the base and on the lobes, especially at the margins inside and out, drying with somewhat prominent longitudinal nerves, the tube little or not inflated and slightly wider at the base; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 2–4 mm, triangular to lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate or cuspidate; in fruit the flange up to 13 mm wide, reflexed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or faintly tinged purple, sometimes becoming purple or violaceous in the tube, (4)6–10(11) cm long, narrowly tubular-infundibuliform, simple, glabrous or with a few short hairs scattered especially along the longitudinal nerves; tube filling the calyx for ± half or more of its length, with a few minute and short hairs scattered mainly below on the staminal region within; limb (1.5)3–7.5 cm across, 5(6)-lobed; lobes triangular or ovate, narrowing into a long-acuminate tip up to 15 mm long, spreading or recurved. Corolla white or faintly tinged purple, sometimes becoming purple or violaceous in the tube, (4)6–10(11) cm long, narrowly tubular-infundibuliform, simple, glabrous or with a few short hairs scattered especially along the longitudinal nerves; tube filling the calyx for ± half or more of its length, with a few minute and short hairs scattered mainly below on the staminal region within; limb (1. 5)3–7.5 cm across, 5(6)-lobed; lobes triangular or ovate, narrowing into a long-acuminate tip up to 15 mm long, spreading or recurved
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, white or purple, included; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube, with short, hyaline, occasionally glandular hairs, free upwards for 1.8–3.3 cm and ± glabrous; anthers (4)5–7.5(8) mm long, elliptic or ± oblong in outline. Stamens 5, white or purple, included; filaments adnate to above the middle of the corolla tube, with short, hyaline, occasionally glandular hairs, free upwards for 1. 8–3.3 cm and ± glabrous; anthers (4)5–7.5(8) mm long, elliptic or ± oblong in outline
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary up to 5 × 4 mm, pyramidal or ovoid, with ± long, fleshy appendages (or smooth outside the Flora Zambesiaca area), puberulent and glandular; style 3.5–6.8(7) cm long, straight, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit upright, yellowish to brown when ripe, 2.5–5 × 2–4.5 cm including spines, subglobose or ovoid to ± ellipsoid, thick-walled, densely covered with many, rather slender to occasionally stout, stiff, ascending, subequal or unequal spines up to 16 mm long (rarely unarmed elsewhere), puberulous, less abundantly on the spines, regularly breaking up downwards (and bearing a strikingly developed false dissepiment). Fruit upright, yellowish to brown when ripe, 2.5–5 × 2–4.5 cm including spines, subglobose or ovoid to ± ellipsoid, thick-walled, densely covered with many, rather slender to occasionally stout, stiff, ascending, subequal or unequal spines up to 16 mm long (rarely unarmed elsewhere), puberulous, less abundantly on the spines, regularly breaking up downwards (and bearing a strikingly developed false dissepiment)
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dark brown to black, 3.5–4.5 × 2.5–3.3(3.5) × 1.2 mm, ± reniform, strongly thickened and alveolate at the border, finely pitted; caruncle very small, fleshy. Seeds dark brown to black, 3.5–4.5 × 2.5–3.3(3.5) × 1. 2 mm, ± reniform, strongly thickened and alveolate at the border, finely pitted; caruncle very small, fleshy
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=24.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 2600 m.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub.

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Erect branched, annual with smooth stems 1-2 ft. or more high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Rather slender white (D. stramonium Linn. proper) or purple-violet (D. tatula Linn. proper) flowers. The flower-colour is of no taxonomic importance.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is.

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, Hungary, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Minnesota, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Nongué, carda, Pedro noche, chamico, manzano espinoso, hierba hedionda, estramonio, datira.

Datura stramonium L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [118], Cape Verde K001134486
Jan 1, 2008 Vincent [s.n.] K000662244
Jan 1, 2008 Wright, C. [3639], Cuba K000662243
Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201970
Jan 1, 2004 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000201971
Sep 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1121], Brazil K001073117
Jan 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1121], Brazil K001073116
Jan 1, 1979 Mori, S.A. [11234], Brazil K001073125
Jul 27, 1976 Ortega, R. [345], Mexico K000063036
Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4902], Brazil K001073124
Aug 1, 1872 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001073123
Palmer, E. [409], Mexico K000063026
Palmer, E. [519], Mexico K000063027
Bourgeau, M. [110], Mexico K000063028
Parry, C.C. [657], Mexico K000063030
Galeotti, H.G. [1200], Mexico K000063032
Hinton, G.B. [5181], Mexico K000063035
s.coll. [s.n.], Sicilia K000759498
Cardoso, J. [73], Cape Verde K001134485
Heringer, E.P. [7278], Brazil K001073118
[illegible] [s.n.], Ecuador K000546089
Glaziou, A.F.M. [14184], Brazil K001073121
Moseley, H.N. [s.n.], Brazil K001073120
Pickersgill, B. [RU72-404], Brazil K001073119
Glaziou, A.F.M. [6060], Brazil K001073122
Stewart, A. [3360], Ecuador K000546088
Rodal, M.J.N. [313], Brazil K001073115
Cope, T.A. [RBG 233], Great Britain K000914305
Stewart, A. [3360], Ecuador K000546087
Cope, T.A. [RBG 275], Great Britain K000914306
Hinton, G.B. [1671], Mexico K000063033
Bourgeau, M. [615], Mexico K000063029
Jan 1, 1823 Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2637], Nepal Datura stramonium var. canescens K000196761 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 2640] Datura tatula K000196770
van der Werff [1933], Ecuador Datura stramonium var. tatula K000546086

First published in Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)

Accepted by

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  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
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  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
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  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
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  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
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  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Litvinskaya, S.A. & Murtazaliev, R.A. (2013). Flora of the Northern Caucasus: An Atlas and Identification Book: 1-688. Fiton XXI.
  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Milgahid, A.M. (1989). Flora of Saudi Arabia, ed. 3, 2: 1-282. University Libraries, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1965). Flora Kazakhstana 8: 1-445. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
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  • Polozhij, A.V. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 12: 1-221. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Purdie, R.W., Symon, D.E. & Haegi, L. (1982). Flora of Australia 29: 1-208. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
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  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Schönbeck-Temesy, E. (1972). Flora Iranica 100: 1-82. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 188 (1987)
  • Chronica Botanica 20: 18 (1959)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 540 (1852)
  • E.P.A. 2: 882 (1963)
  • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 374 (1892)
  • F.P.U.: 129 (1962)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 257 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd. ed.: 326 (1963)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 29 (2005)
  • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 118 (1904)
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  • Fl. Egypt 6: 110 (1998)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 158 (2006).
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 219 (2006)
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 3: 753 (1898)
  • Sp. Pl.: 179 (1753)
  • Syll. Fl. Cong.: 397 (1909)
  • Syst. Nat. 2, ed. 10: 932 (1759)
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  • U.K.W.F. 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)
  • Verdc. & Trump, Common Poisonous Pl. E. Afr.: 165 (1969)
  • W.F.K.: 90 (1948)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/