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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.
Corchorus olitorius

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Coarse annual herb, up to 2 m high, glabrous in all parts
Morphology Leaves
Leaves with petiole 5–40 mm long; blade narrowly ovate, ovate or elliptic, 2.5–17 x 1–5 cm, acuminate to acute at the apex, rounded at the base, with up to 15 mm long basal setae, with serrate margin
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in 1(–2)-flowered clusters; peduncle and pedicels up to 2 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, 4–7 x 1–1.5 mm, distinctly ciliolate at base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, 5–7 x 1–2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 25–50
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary minutely setulose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule (4–)5-valved, 2–8 cm long, cylindric, straight or slightly curved on erect pedicels, glabrous and smooth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1.5–2 mm long, irregularly ribbed.
Distribution
?C1; S2, 3 pantropic.
Ecology
Altitude range c. 30–300 m.
Vernacular
Ambago, dhereeriyo, masgol, raansow, yululu (Somali).

[FTEA]

Tiliaceae, C. Whitehouse, M. Cheek, S. Andrews & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2001

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb to 2.5 m, mainly glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves elliptic to narrowly elliptic, oblong-ovate or ovate, chartaceous, 4.5–14 cm long, 1–5 cm wide, margins serrate with 2 basal serrations prolonged into 2 setae up to 2.3 cm long, rounded at base, acute to acuminate, prominently nerved above and beneath, with setaceous hairs; petioles 1.4–5 cm long, covered with setaceous hairs on upper surface; stipule 0.5–1.6 cm long, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of 1–2(–3)-flowered fascicles; peduncles up to 2 mm, glabrous; pedicels up to 2 mm; bracts up to 3 mm long, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, 5–8.5 mm long, 1.5–3 mm wide, ciliate at the basal margin.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, 5–7 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, pale yellow, oblanceolate, with a short ciliate claw at the base; stamens ∞; ovary cylindric, minutely setulose, to 3.5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule cylindric, 10-ribbed, straight or slightly curved on erect pedicels, 2–8 cm long, 0.4–0.7 cm wide, splitting into 5 valves, tapering to a beak.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds angular, 1.5–2 mm long, irregularly ribbed, black.
Figures
Fig. 18/10 (fruit, p. 103).
Habitat
Swampy grassland and other moist areas, weed of cultivation; 30–1400 m
Distribution
K1 K2 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 pantropical

[FWTA]

Tiliaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A more or less glabrous herb, often woody at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellow
Ecology
Cultivated or subspontaneous
Note
A common form has laciniate leaves.

[FZ]

Tiliaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Coarse erect annual up to 2 m. tall; young branches somewhat angular or sulcate, glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 3–10 × 2–5 cm., ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, thin-textured, apex acute, margin serrate or serrate-crenate with the two lowest serrations prolonged into elongated setaceous appendages c. 1 cm. long, rounded at the base, glabrous on both surfaces or setulose on the nerves beneath; petiole up to 5 cm. long, pubescent on the upper side; stipules c. 1 cm. long, setaceous, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of small 2–3-flowered cymes opposite the upper leaves; peduncles very short, c. 1 mm. long, glabrous; pedicels 1–2 mm. long; bracts c. 5 mm. long, setaceous, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals c. 7 mm. long, linear, thin-textured, bluntly caudate at the apex, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals yellow, c. 7 mm. long, oblanceolate, with a short ciliate claw at the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary clasped at the base by a cupular annulus c. 0·5 mm. long with somewhat undulate margin. Ovary cylindric, 10-ribbed, very minutely setulose and glandular, 5-locular, many-ovuled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens c. 20.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 1–8 cm. long, cylindric, appressed to the stem, straight or slightly curved, somewhat torulose, 10-ribbed, 5-valved, with a straight undivided beak c. 1·2 cm. long and inner surface of valves transversely septate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds blackish, c. 2·3 × 2 mm., angular.

[FSOM]
Use
The species is cultivated for its fibres (jute), especially in India. Also eaten as a vegetable.

[FWTA]
Use
One of the plants which yield jute.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Somalia, South China Sea, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Algeria, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Chad, Cuba, Cyprus, Egypt, Fiji, Haiti, Iraq, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Libya, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, Peru, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Windward Is., Yemen

Corchorus olitorius L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Sep 16, 2008 Crawford, F. [162], Namibia K000450341
May 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9641], Cameroon K000026387
Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [9551], Cameroon K000094592
Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [9464], Cameroon K000094593
Kotschy [162], Niger K000242057
Vogel [119], Niger K000242058
Vogel [119], Niger K000242059
unknown [471], Gambia K000425880
Bové [315], Gambia K000425881
Kotschy [145], Niger K000425882 Unknown type material
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072] K001110936
Coradin, L. [5967], Brazil K001209664
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072] K001110934
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1072], India K001110931
Glaziou, A. [15847], Brazil K001209663
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1072], Myanmar K001110932
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072], Bangladesh K001110938
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072] K001110933
Thompson, S.A. [1755], Cameroon K000094594
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072], India K001110937
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1072] K001110935
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1072], India K001110930

First published in Sp. Pl.: 529 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Browicz, K. (1981). Flora Iranica 148: 1-15. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lejoly, J. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Flore de la Tshopo (RD Congo): Familles des Malvaceae, Orchidaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae Taxonomania 29: 1-41.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Whitehouse, C., Cheek, M., Andrews, S. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Tiliaceae & Muntingiaceae: 1-120.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Chev. Bot. 91.
  • —F.T.A. 1: 262

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Browicz, K. (1981). Flora Iranica 148: 1-15. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chou, S., Chhnang, P. & Kim, Y. (2016). A Checklist for the Seed Plants of Cambodia: 1-272. National Institute of Biological Resources, Korea.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Shishkin, B.K. (ed.) (1950). Flora Turkmenii 5: 1-271. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1959). Flora Uzbekistana 4: 1-507. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2019). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 2, (1999) Author: by Sebsebe Demissew [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 347, fig. 168/a (1921).
  • A.J. Jex-Blake, Some Wild Flowers of Kenya p. 33 (1948).
  • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 95 (1994).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 515 (1958).
  • DC., Prodr. 1: 504 (1824).
  • Dalziel, Useful Pl. W. Trop. Afr.: 96 (1937).
  • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda, ed. 2: 59 (1971).
  • Edmonds, Herb. Surv. Afr. Corchorus Sp.: 32, 127, fig. 2/j, map 9 (1990).
  • Excell & Mendonça in Consp. Fl. Angol. 1: 240 (1951).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 217 (1950).
  • Hanid in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 187 (1974).
  • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 1: 241 (1927).
  • K. Schum. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 261 (1895).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 308 (1958).
  • L., Sp. Pl. 1: 529 (1753).
  • Mast. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 262 (1868).
  • R. Wilczek in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 10: 85 (1963).
  • T.V. Jacobs in Phyton 61: 98, fig. 1/e (1997).
  • Vollesen in Fl. Eth. 2(2): 155, fig. 79.4/4 (1995).
  • Wild & Gonç. in Fl. Moçamb. 28: 57 (1969).
  • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 82, t. 8/b (1963).
  • Wild in Flora of Southern Africa 21(1): 33, fig. 4/4 (1984).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/