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Madagascar periwinkle is a popular ornamental plant found in gardens and homes across the warmer parts of the world. It is also known as the source of chemical compounds used in the treatment of cancer. Their discovery led to one of the most important medical breakthroughs of the twentieth century.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2000 m.; Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, arbusto

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
Madagascar periwinkle is a popular ornamental plant found in gardens and homes across the world, and is used in the treatment of cancer.

Madagascar periwinkle is a popular ornamental plant found in gardens and homes across the warmer parts of the world. It is also known as the source of chemical compounds used in the treatment of cancer. Their discovery led to one of the most important medical breakthroughs of the twentieth century.

The flowers are adapted to pollination by a long-tongued insect, such as a moth or butterfly. This species is also able to self-pollinate. Self-compatibility and a relatively high tolerance to disturbance have enabled the plant to spread from cultivation and to become naturalised in many parts of the world. As a consequence, Madagascar periwinkle is sometimes considered to be an invasive weed, although it does not normally proliferate sufficiently to eliminate native vegetation. Its seeds have been seen to be distributed by ants.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Madagascar periwinkle is indigenous to Madagascar, but is cultivated and naturalised throughout the tropics and parts of the subtropics.

Description

Overview: A tender, perennial plant which grows as a herb or subshrub sprawling along the ground or standing erect (30 cm to 1 m in height).Like many other plants in the Apocynaceae family, the sap is a milky latex.

Flowers: It has attractive white or pink flowers comprising five petals spreading from a long, tubular throat.

Leaves: The leathery, dark green leaves are arranged in opposite pairs.

Fruits: Each fruit is made up of two narrow, cylindrical follicles which house numerous grooved seeds. 

Uses

Medicinal

In traditional medicine, Madagascar periwinkle has been used to treat a variety of ailments in Madagascar as well as in other parts of the world where the plant has naturalised.

Whilst researching the anti-diabetic properties of the plant in the 1950s, scientists discovered the presence of several highly toxic alkaloids in its tissues. These alkaloids are now used in the treatment of a number of different types of cancer, with one derived compound, called vincristine, having been credited with raising the survival rate in childhood leukaemia from less than 10% in 1960 to over 90% today. Powerful medicinal plants such as the Madagascar periwinkle remind us of the need to conserve and study the increasingly threatened plant habitats of the world.

Ornamental

Madagascar periwinkle is grown as a bedding plant in tropical regions and cultivated indoors as a house plant in temperate areas.

Threats and conservation

Madagascar's forests have been heavily impacted by human activity, but Madagascar periwinkle's ability to thrive in disturbed areas has enabled it to survive in its island home. Furthermore, it is widely established in the wild throughout tropical regions of the world, commonly cultivated in gardens and homes, and grown commercially for the pharmaceutical industry. Given the modern ubiquity of naturalised and cultivated populations of Madagascar periwinkle, direct conservation measures are a low priority for this species.

A rainforest cure for cancer?

Madagascar periwinkle was for many years grown simply as an attractive bedding plant in tropical areas. It comes in a range of pinks and reds that give rise to its other common name, rosy periwinkle. But today it has a more serious purpose; planted around the world during colonial times, it quickly became known at the same time as a useful folk medicine for diabetics. American and Canadian researchers during World War Two became aware that soldiers stationed in the Philippines were using it instead of insulin during shortages.

As a consequence, after the war, lab testing was done in earnest on Madagascar periwinkle. This revealed that the plant contained thirty alkaloids, strong plant chemicals that might be of use to humans. The leaves were found to contain two particularly valuable alkaloids, vinblastine and vincristine. These alkaloids work by disrupting part of cell division or 'mitosis', stopping the process when newly copied DNA is split into two identical parts to produce two identical new cells.

The drug company Eli Lilly tested the new chemicals on mice and found they helped to combat cancers, in particular those of the bone marrow such as childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. They developed an effective chemotherapy treatment, and today the prognosis for sufferers has changed from a one in ten chance of survival, to at least an eight out of ten chance of some remission.

Contracts and collecting

Madagascar periwinkle shows how important it is to preserve areas of rich biodiversity, for there may be other 'miracle drugs' contained in plants just waiting to be discovered. But it also epitomises the issues involved in exploiting the riches of the plant world. In the 1960s, when these alkaloids were discovered, rich Western countries saw little need to reward the original homeland of the periwinkle, Madagascar, for the riches that had been earned from the plant.

Today at Kew we take a different view. We believe that Madagascar's people should have a say over how their plant resources are exploited: particularly where a plant is restricted to a single country. The Convention on Biological Diversity, of which the UK is a signatory, states that rights to exploit a discovery like that of the alkaloids in the periwinkle should be shared fairly.

In practice, this means that Kew has a legal team whose job is it to make sure that things are done equitably. Before a plant collecting team can even book flights, contracts are drawn up to ensure that the country being visited is happy with the arrangements being made. With such contracts in place, local people have much more incentive to look after their biodiversity. Now they know that if a profitable discovery is made, they will have a share in it.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

A collection of  Catharanthus roseus  seeds is held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

See Kew's Seed Information Database for further information on Catharanthus roseus seeds

Cultivation

Madagascar periwinkle is easy to cultivate, and can be propagated by seed or by cuttings, but is sensitive to over-watering. A tender plant, it does not withstand frosts and is best grown indoors in temperate climates. It thrives in hot and humid environments, in full sun or partial shade and flowers all year round in hot climates.

Catharanthus roseus is easily propagated by apical semi-ripe cuttings in light, free-draining compost. The best results are obtained when bottom heat and high humidity are provided. Propagation can also be carried out by seed, which should be maintained at 22-25ºC and kept in the dark until the seeds germinate.

This species at Kew

Madagascar periwinkle can be seen growing in the Palm House at Kew.

Preserved specimens of Catharanthus roseus are held in Kew's Herbarium and also the Economic Botany Collection, where they are available to researchers by appointment. 

Distribution
Madagascar
Ecology
On sand and limestone soils in woodland, forest, grassland, and disturbed areas.
Conservation
Not yet assessed according to IUCN Red List criteria.
Hazards

As with other members of the Apocynaceae family, the sap is extremely toxic.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Vernacular
Madagascar periwinkle (English).
Morphology General Habit
Subshrub, up to about 1 m high; stems glabrous or pubescent
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades elliptic to obovate, 3–8.5 x 0.8–4 cm, obtuse or acute at the apex, pubescent or glabrous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink, usually with a darker centre; tube 22–30 mm long; lobes overlapping to the left in bud
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens included; anthers 2.3–3 mm long, subsessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 16–27 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit green, of two cylindrical striate follicles c. 2–4 cm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds black.
Distribution
Originating from Madagascar but cultivated and naturalized all over the tropics.

[KSP]
Use
Medicinal, ornamental.

[FSOM]
Use
Some of the alkaloids of C. roseus are used for the treatment of leukaemia in children. Cultivated as an ornamental

Native to:

Madagascar

Introduced into:

Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Kriti, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Panamá, Philippines, Phoenix Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Vietnam, Wake I., Windward Is., Zaïre

English
Madagascar periwinkle

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2007 Ambriansyah [AA 3105], Kalimantan K000224353
Jan 1, 2007 Ambriansyah [AA 3105], Kalimantan K000224353
Dec 12, 2005 Shea [SAN 77127], Malaysia K000229401
Dec 12, 2005 Shea [SAN 77127], Malaysia K000229401
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1637], Vietnam Vinca rosea K001113662
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1637] Vinca rosea K001113659
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1637] Vinca rosea K001113661
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1637] Vinca rosea K001113660
s.coll. [Cat. no. 1637] Vinca rosea K001113663

First published in Gen. Hist. 4: 95 (1837)

Accepted by

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2017). Suppressions and additions to the flora of the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile) Botany Letters 164: 351-360.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Middleton, D.J. (2011). Flora of peninsular Malaysia, II, 2: 1-235. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia.
  • Middleton, D.J. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 33: 1-276. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Middleton, J.D. (ed.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 13: 1-654. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
  • Morales, J.F. (2005). Estudios en las Apocynaceae Neotropicales XIX: La familia Apocynaceae s.str. (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae) de Costa Rica Darwiniana 43: 90-191.
  • Morales, J.F. (2006). Estudios en las Apocynaceae Neotropicales XXVIII: le familia Apocynaceae (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae) de El Salvador, Centroamérica Darwiniana 44: 453-489.
  • Morales, J.F. (2009). Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales XXXIX: revisión de las Apocynoideae y Rauvolfioideae de Honduras Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 66: 217-262.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1969). List of vascular flora of Rangiroa Atoll Research Bulletin 125: 33-44.
  • Smith, A.C. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 4: 1-377. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Vikraman, R.R., Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 765-781.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Armitage, A. M. (2001).  Manual of Annuals, Biennials, and Half-hardy Perennials. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • Encyclopedia of Life (March 2009)
  • Heywood, V. H.  et al. (2008).  Flowering Plant Families of the World. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • ITIS (February 2009)
  • Roberson, E.  Medicinal Plants at Risk - Nature’s Pharmacy, Our Treasure Chest: Why We Must Conserve Our Natural Heritage. Center for Biological Diversity, Tucson, AZ.
  • van Bergen, M. & Snoeijer, W. (1996). Catharanthus G.Don. The Madagascar Periwinkle and Related Species. Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 96-3: 1-120.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
  • Morales, J.F. (2005). Estudios en las Apocynaceae Neotropicales XIX: La familia Apocynaceae s.str. (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae) de Costa Rica Darwiniana 43: 90-191.
  • Morales, J.F. (2006). Estudios en las Apocynaceae Neotropicales XXVIII: le familia Apocynaceae (Apocynoideae, Rauvolfioideae) de El Salvador, Centroamérica Darwiniana 44: 453-489.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Sachet, M.-H. (1969). List of vascular flora of Rangiroa Atoll Research Bulletin 125: 33-44.
  • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
  • Smith, A.C. (1988). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 4: 1-377. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
  • Stutz, L.-C. (1982). Herborisation 1981 aux îles Maldives Candollea 37: 599-631.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Vikraman, R.R., Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 765-781.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2018). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 9 Willdenowia 48: 195-220.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
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