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This species is accepted, and its native range is Bolivia.

[FWTA]

Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Robust annual up to 6 ft. high
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Long tubular white, pinkish, or sometimes cream flowers, viscid-glandular outside.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 100 - 2600 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Orinoquia, Valle del Cauca.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba, liana
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Type
Type: “in America, nota Europaeis ab 1560”, Herb. Linn. 245.1 (LINN!, lecto. designated by Setchell in Univ. Calif. Publ., Bot., 5: 6 (1912)) [See also Jarvis, Order out of Chaos: 694 (2007)]
Morphology General Habit
Annual or short-lived perennial herb to 3 m.
Morphology Stem
Stems sometimes basally woody, erect, sparsely branched; all parts conspicuously viscid-villous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spatulate, lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, 8–50 × 2.8–21 cm, upper leaves smaller, bases decurrent, sessile or with short winged petiole up to 5 cm long, often auriculate, apices acute to narrowly acuminate, viscid-glandular on both surfaces
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal muchbranched panicles up to 25 cm long; flowers fragrant; pedicels densely viscid-pilose, 0.5–2 cm long in flower, up to 2.8 cm long in fruit, always erect; bracts linearlanceolate to ligulate, densely viscid-pubescent; calyx tubular to narrowly campanulate, 10–22 × 3–9 mm, viscid-pubescent externally, lobes unequal, narrowly triangular, 5–11 × 1.5–4 mm, acute to subulate-acuminate, enlarging in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink fading to white, often tube greenish and lobes pink to reddish, tubular below, ampliate becoming infundibuliform above, overall 3.6–5 × 1.1–2.8 cm diameter apically; tube 2.8–4.2 × 1.5–4 mm wide basally increasing to 5–9 mm below lobes, viscid-pilose externally, glabrous internally; lobes usually shallow broadly triangular, 1.5–5 × 2.3–10 mm, acuminate, spreading after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal, the fifth often shorter; filaments two longer pairs free for 2.4–4.2 cm, shorter free for 2–3.5 cm; anthers 2–3(–3.6) × 1–2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary elliptic to conical, ?dark brown, 5–8 × 2–5 mm; disc crenulate, 2–5 mm diameter; style 3–3.8 cm long; stigma 0.7–1.5 × 1–2 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsules glabrous, brown, elliptic or ovoid, 1.3–2.2 × 0.8–1.5 cm, with apical beak, dehiscing by four glabrous smooth valves, wholly or partially covered by accrescent calyces
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ellipsoid, ovoid, globose, angular or discoid, 0.3–0.8(–1) × 0.2–0.5(–0.7) mm
Figures
Fig 3/1–8, p 22
Ecology
Cultivated, escaped and locally naturalised in woods and dry evergreen forest, bushland, on roadsides and along streams; 800–2600 m
Conservation
Widespread; least concern (LC)
Note
Known throughout the world as the common tobacco, N. tabacum is widely cultivated for its stimulatory effect, with many cultivars also being grown as ornamentals for their varying flower colours and strong evening fragrances. It is a highly polymorphic species now composed of a large number of cultivar forms used in modern tobaccos. Many more synonyms of this species are given in Goodspeed (1954) and Mansfeld (2001), who both summarise its amphidiploid origin from N. sylvestris Speg. & Comes and N. tomentosiformis Goodspeed. Plants were cultivated and the leaves already used for chewing and smoking in Mexico, C America, Venezuela, Colombia and Guyana before the Americas were discovered. It is now the most important commercial tobacco species, widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and some temperate zones, with the largest cultivation area encompassing China, India, Brazil, the former Soviet Union and the USA. Nicotine content is lower than in N. rustica; edible oils have recently been extracted from its seeds (Mansfeld, 2001). Among the many described varieties of this species are nine by Dunal (1852) and two in the Congo by Durand & Durand (1909), though none of these varietal names have been encountered on East African material. Williams (in U.O.P.Z., 1949) listed N. plumbaginifolia as occurring in Pemba and Zanzibar. The discriminatory characters given do not accurately reflect those given by Goodspeed (1954) for this species, with many being similar to those exhibited by N. alata. It is probable that the specimens were mis-identified. Said to be cultivated in Uganda in F.P.U.: 129, but no specimens have been seen.
Distribution
Flora districts: U (see note); K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T3 T4 T5 Z Range: Probably originated in NW Argentina, naturalised throughout Africa and Indian Ocean islands

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Type
Type from America: Linnean specimen 245.1 (LINN, lectotype, IDC microfiche neg. 136.I.6!), fide D'Arcy, loc. cit. (1974).
Morphology General Habit
Annual to short-lived perennial herb (0.5)0.6–1. 5 m tall (elsewhere said to reach 3 m), somewhat bushy below, somewhat viscid, shortly glandular-pubescent Annual to short-lived perennial herb (0.5)0.6–1.5 m tall (elsewhere said to reach 3 m), somewhat bushy below, somewhat viscid, shortly glandular-pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels (2)5–17 mm long, slender, later markedly thickened distally and 10–20 mm long, ± erect in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 3–7 × 2–3.5 mm, conic or ovoid, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style 2.5–6 mm long, straight, glabrous
Ecology
Riversides and riverbeds, anthills, in old cultivated ground and waste places; up to 1460 m.
Note
Common name: “Tobacco” or “American Tobacco”. Cultivated since antiquity for the cured leaf which is smoked. Nowadays also cultivated as a source of nicotine and medicinal products, and as a garden ornamental; now locally naturalized. Chromosome number: 2n=48
Distribution
Throughout Africa from Libya and Egypt southwards to South Africa and from Canary and Cape Verde Islands eastwards to Aldabra and Comoro Islands. Zambia Native to tropical South America (probably from NW Argentina and Bolivia), now extending from the United States southwards throughout Central America and the Antilles to Chile and Argentina. Malawi ZAM N, ZIM C, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ GI, MOZ M Mozambique Zimbabwe
Morphology Branches
Branches herbaceous, ± terete. Branches herbaceous, ± terete
Morphology Leaves
Leaves green or brownish, not glaucous, puberulent to ± hairy and viscid on both sides; lamina of stem leaves basally narrowed into a winged petiole and expanded to resemble 2 leafy stipules, the petiole and its foliose wings decurrent on the stem; lower leaves often in a sparse rosette, up to 50 × 26 cm (elsewhere said to reach 150 cm in length), obovate or spathulate to elliptic or ovate, occasionally lanceolate, apex obtuse to acute; upper ones solitary, with lamina (3.5)5–21.5(39.5) × (1)1.5–8(17) cm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, occasionally obovate, apex long-acuminate to acute, entire or sometimes undulate. Leaves green or brownish, not glaucous, puberulent to ± hairy and viscid on both sides; lamina of stem leaves basally narrowed into a winged petiole and expanded to resemble 2 leafy stipules, the petiole and its foliose wings decurrent on the stem; lower leaves often in a sparse rosette, up to 50 × 26 cm (elsewhere said to reach 150 cm in length), obovate or spathulate to elliptic or ovate, occasionally lanceolate, apex obtuse to acute; upper ones solitary, with lamina (3.5)5–21. 5(39.5) × (1)1. 5–8(17) cm, narrowly lanceolate to ovate or elliptic, occasionally obovate, apex long-acuminate to acute, entire or sometimes undulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often many, erect to nodding, in broad, loose, flat, sometimes rounded at the top, several–much-branched, spreading, glandular-pubescent, paniculiform inflorescences up to 23 cm long, terminal and axillary; bracts foliaceous, clasping; bracteoles small, linear to foliaceous, often ephemeral; pedicels (2)5–17 mm long, slender, later markedly thickened distally and 10–20 mm long, ± erect in fruit. Flowers often many, erect to nodding, in broad, loose, flat, sometimes rounded at the top, several–much-branched, spreading, glandular-pubescent, paniculiform inflorescences up to 23 cm long, terminal and axillary; bracts foliaceous, clasping; bracteoles small, linear to foliaceous, often ephemeral.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 8–25 × 3.5–8 mm, tubular or tubular-campanulate, viscid, glandular and shortly hairy; lobes unequal to equal, 2.5–13 × 1.5–5 mm, triangular to narrowly lanceolate or subulate-acicular, acute to long-acuminate, somewhat ciliate; in fruit somewhat enlarged to 25 × 15 mm and enclosing it or not. Calyx 8–25 × 3.5–8 mm, tubular or tubular-campanulate, viscid, glandular and shortly hairy; lobes unequal to equal, 2.5–13 × 1. 5–5 mm, triangular to narrowly lanceolate or subulate-acicular, acute to long-acuminate, somewhat ciliate; in fruit somewhat enlarged to 25 × 15 mm and enclosing it or not
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla pale greenish to white, sometimes pink to red in upper half or pinkish only at the margins of the lobes, 3–8 cm long, tubular-infundibuliform to salviform; tube straight or scarcely curved, dilated in upper part, 3–9 mm wide distally, not or very slightly constricted under the limb, viscid, puberulent outside; limb 3–10(12) mm long, (8)10–25(30) mm across, lobed to subentire; lobes 3–10 × 3–10 mm, broadly triangular to ovate, acuminate to acute or obtuse-apiculate, ± spreading. Corolla pale greenish to white, sometimes pink to red in upper half or pinkish only at the margins of the lobes, 3–8 cm long, tubular-infundibuliform to salviform; tube straight or scarcely curved, dilated in upper part, 3–9 mm wide distally, not or very slightly constricted under the limb, viscid, puberulent outside; limb 3–10(12) mm long, (8)10–25(30) mm across, lobed to subentire; lobes 3–10 × 3–10 mm, broadly triangular to ovate, acuminate to acute or obtuse-apiculate, ± spreading
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens unequal, one somewhat shorter than the other 4, usually included, sometimes slightly exserted; filaments (1)2–3.5 cm long, attached at or near the base of the corolla dilation, shortly hairy at the base and on the decurrent ridges, sometimes to near the apex, erect; anthers 2–3 × 1–1.5 mm. Stamens unequal, one somewhat shorter than the other 4, usually included, sometimes slightly exserted; filaments (1)2–3.5 cm long, attached at or near the base of the corolla dilation, shortly hairy at the base and on the decurrent ridges, sometimes to near the apex, erect; anthers 2–3 × 1–1. 5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk to c. 0.8 mm high, thick, coalescent to the basal part of the ovary, deeply lobed. Disk to c.  0.8 mm high, thick, coalescent to the basal part of the ovary, deeply lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary 3–7 × 2–3.5 mm, conic or ovoid, glabrous; style 2.5–6 mm long, straight, glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ± erect, brownish, 10–20 × 7–15 mm, narrowly ellipsoid, ovoid or globose, with a short apical beak, thin-walled, glabrous, splitting above into 2 valves by septicidal slits, each one later 2-fid. Fruit ± erect, brownish, 10–20 × 7–15 mm, narrowly ellipsoid, ovoid or globose, with a short apical beak, thin-walled, glabrous, splitting above into 2 valves by septicidal slits, each one later 2-fid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds brown, 0.7–0.8 × 0.4–0.6 mm, globose or ellipsoid, wrinkled. Seeds brown, 0.7–0.8 × 0.4–0.6 mm, globose or ellipsoid, wrinkled
Cytology
Chromosome number: 2n=48.

Native to:

Bolivia

Introduced into:

Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Galápagos, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, India, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New York, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South European Russi, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, St.Helena, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wake I., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Nicotiana tabacum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jun 14, 2007 Ambriansyah et al. [AA 2580], Kalimantan K000224430
Jun 1, 2006 Etuge, M. [5284], Cameroon K000339797
Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1622], Cameroon K000109665
Feb 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [3443], Cameroon K000339153
Pringle, C.G. [6745], Mexico K000063492
Palmer, E. [347], Mexico K000063493
Hinton, G.B. [588], Mexico K000063494
Hinton, G.B. [1669], Mexico K000063495
Hinton, G.B. [4113], Mexico K000063496
González O., J. [217], Mexico K000063498
Hawkes, J.G. [1523], Michoacán K000063500 holotype
Nuttall [s.n.], California K000759858
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001073260
Trail, J.W.H. [598], Brazil K001073263
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001073268
Hinton, G.B. [329], Mexico K000063497
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2645], Nepal K001116732
Harley, R.M. [21100], Brazil K001073259
Mwachala, G. [1186], Kenya K000449279
Harley, R.M. [21100], Brazil K001073258
Hinton, G.B. [5670], Mexico K000063502
Glaziou, A.F.M. [21812], Brazil K001073264
Hinton, G.B. [10139], Mexico K000063499
Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001073262
Weir, J. [431], Brazil K001073267
Heringer, E.P. [1540], Brazil K001073257
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001073266
Miers, J. [3129], Brazil K001073261
Burchell, W.J. [4708], Brazil K001073265
Sello [s.n.], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073309
Sello [s.n.], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073308
Glaziou, A.F.M. [6655], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073307
Sellow [347], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073306
Glaziou, A.F.M. [13083], Brazil Nicotiana angustifolia K001073305
Pringle, C.G. [6744], Mexico Nicotiana tabacum var. undulata K000063501

First published in Sp. Pl.: 180 (1753)

Accepted by

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  • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Majumder, S.C. & Chakrabarty, T. (2009). A census of the genus Nicotiana L. (Solanaceae) in India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 545-548.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck archipelago for naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

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Flora Zambesiaca

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Kew Backbone Distributions

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  • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
  • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
  • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
  • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
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  • D'Arcy, W.G. & Rakotozafy, A. (1994). Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 176: 1-146. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edmonds, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa Solanaceae: 1-239.
  • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
  • Florence, J., Waldren, S. & Chepstow-Lusty, A.J. (1995). The flora of the Pitcairn islands: a review Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 79-119.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
  • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gonçalves, A.E. (2005). Flora Zambesiaca 8(4): 1-124. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Heine, H. (1976). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 7: 1-212. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hul, S. & Dy Phon, P. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 35: 1-93. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Khan, M.S. & Mia, C. (2002). Flora of Bangladesh 53: 1-48. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
  • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
  • Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 1-590. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Lorence, D.H. & Wagnwe, W.L. (2020). Flora of the Marquesas Islands 2: 413-1135. National Tropical Botanic Garden, Smithsonian, DRPF.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Majumder, S.C. & Chakrabarty, T. (2009). A census of the genus Nicotiana L. (Solanaceae) in India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 545-548.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Merrill, E.D. (1923). An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3: 1-628. Bureau of Science, Manila.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
  • Nasir, Y.J. (1985). Flora of Pakistan 168: 1-61. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck archipelago for naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Scott, A.J. (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 128: 1-41. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Symon, D.E. (1985). The Solanaceae of New Guinea Journal of the Adelaide botanic gardens 8: 1-171.
  • Thaman, R.R. & Tye, A. (2015). Flora of Kiritimari (Christmass) atoll, Northern Line islands, Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin 608: 1-73.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
  • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Rich., Tent. Fl Abyss. 2: 94 (1851)
  • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 189 (1992)
  • Chron. Bot. 16: 372 (1954)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 557 (1852)
  • Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Congo 397 (1909)
  • E.P.A. 2: 883 (1963)
  • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 375 (1892)
  • F.P.N.A. 2: 218 (1947)
  • F.P.U.: 129 (1962)
  • F.T.A. 4, 2: 259 (1906)
  • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 327 (1963)
  • F.Z. 8(4): 17 (2005)
  • Fl. Cap. 4(1): 119 (1904)
  • Fl. Egypt 6: 145 (1998)
  • Fl. Eth. 5: 106 (2006).
  • Fl. Madagascar, Solanaceae: 31 (1994)
  • Fl. Somalia 3: 220 (2006)
  • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 3: 754 (1898)
  • Japan Tobacco Inc., Nicotiana Illustrated: 60 & 268 (1994)
  • Mansfeld, Encycl. Ag. & Hort. Crops 4: 1852 (2001)
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 180 (1753)
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 369 (1985)
  • U.K.W.F. 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)
  • U.O.P.Z.: 380 (1949)

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