1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Oplismenus P.Beauv.
      1. Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial with rambling culms 15–100 cm. long or more.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrowly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1–13 cm. long, 4–20 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 3–15 cm. long, comprising 3–9 racemes each 0.5–3 cm. long with glabrous to sparsely pilose rhachis and ± contiguous spikelets, or the upper reduced to fascicles; sometimes all the racemes very short, but then the awns also short (less than 7 mm.).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate, 2–4 mm. long, glabrous to sparsely pubescent; glumes with smooth viscid awns, the longest in each pair of spikelets 3–14 mm. long.
    Habitat
    In forest shade; 0–2500 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 throughout the tropics (except India and Indo-China where it is apparently replaced by O. compositus)
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Rambling perennial with lanceolate to narrowly ovate leaf laminae.
    Culms
    Culms 15–100 cm. long or more.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes with a distinct rhachis up to 3 cm. long, the spikelet pairs contiguous; rarely the racemes all ± cuneate, but then awns also short.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2–4 mm. long, glabrous to sparsely pubescent; awns smooth and sticky, the longest in each pair of spikelets 3–14 mm.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Forest shade. Straggling, often with long aerial roots from the nodes
    Note
    Rather variable, particularly in the size, shape and hairiness of its leaf-blades, and also in panicle characters.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Culms prostrate; 15-100 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blades lanceolate to ovate; 1-13 cm long; 4-20 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with obscure cross veins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 3-9; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 0.5-3 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 3-15 cm long. Rhachis angular; glabrous on surface, or pilose on surface. Spikelet packing contiguous; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in the cluster; subequal, or the lower smaller. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2-4 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2-4 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes similar, or dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of upper glume; 0.5-0.7 length of spikelet; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 3-14 mm long; viscid. Upper glume ovate; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex obtuse; muticous, or awned. Upper glume awn 2-4 mm long.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 1-keeled; 7-11 -veined; glabrous, or pubescent; emarginate; mucronate. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; coriaceous; shiny; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute; laterally pinched. Palea involute; coriaceous; without keels.
    Distribution
    Africa: Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: north-central USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    Diagnostic
    Spikelet pairs 0.5-4mm apart.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sudan, Sulawesi, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Hawaii, Nauru, St.Helena

    Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2014 Lindeman, J.C. [r4451], Brazil K001055354
    Feb 1, 2014 Ratter, J.A. [975], Brazil K001055327
    Feb 1, 2014 Ule, E. [8025], Brazil K001055318
    Feb 1, 2014 Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6059], Brazil K001055340
    Feb 1, 2014 Dusén, P. [7906], Brazil K001055350
    Feb 1, 2014 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001055345
    Feb 1, 2014 Reitz, R. [3772], Brazil K001055360
    Feb 1, 2014 Vianna, M.C. [1675], Brazil K001055339
    Feb 1, 2014 Gardner [5655], Brazil K001055323
    Feb 1, 2014 Spruce [423], Brazil K001055315
    Feb 1, 2014 Burchell [6859], Brazil K001055325
    Feb 1, 2014 Glaziou [12268], Brazil K001055321
    Jan 1, 2014 Pereira, E. [2728], Brazil K001055338
    Jan 1, 2014 Irwin, H.S. [15452], Brazil K001055365
    Jan 1, 2014 Riedel [951], Brazil K001055316
    Jan 1, 2014 Riedel [43(115)], Brazil K001055317
    Jan 1, 2014 Fróes, R.L. [20314], Brazil K001055314
    Jan 1, 2014 Burchell [6806-2], Brazil K001055322
    Jan 1, 2014 Burchell [9029], Brazil K001055326
    Jan 1, 2014 Glaziou [20573], Brazil K001055320
    Dec 1, 2013 Coulter [1659] K001055324
    Jun 1, 2004 Cheek, M. [10460], Cameroon K000746243
    Nov 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1067], Cameroon K000746253
    Nov 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [1013], Cameroon K000746259
    Jun 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [10180], Cameroon K000109613
    Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [4407], Cameroon K000107902
    Jun 1, 2001 Sidwell, K. [328], Cameroon K000107868
    May 1, 2001 Lane, P. [177], Cameroon K000107960
    May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [6066], Cameroon K000107959
    May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9151], Cameroon K000107971
    May 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [2780], Cameroon K000107967
    May 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [4278], Cameroon K000107969
    May 1, 2001 Ghogue, J.-P. [45], Cameroon K000107970
    Jan 1, 2000 Laegaard, S. [18441], Burkina Faso K000212194
    Jun 1, 1998 Kamundi, D. [729], Cameroon K000339624
    May 1, 1998 Etuge, M. [3550], Cameroon K000339623
    May 1, 1998 Munyenyembe, P. [858], Cameroon K000339622
    Feb 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7608], Cameroon K000107949
    Feb 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7698], Cameroon K000107950
    Feb 1, 1996 Sebsebe [5079], Cameroon K000107947
    Feb 1, 1996 Sebsebe [5080], Cameroon K000107948
    Feb 1, 1996 Patterson, C. [3], Cameroon K000107951
    Jan 1, 1996 Silva, L.F. [83], Brazil K001055342
    Jan 1, 1996 Marsden, J. [19], Cameroon K000182309
    Jan 1, 1995 Gereau, R.E. [5641], Cameroon K000182320
    Jan 1, 1995 Gereau, R.E. [5583], Cameroon K000182321
    Jan 1, 1994 Cheek, M. [5778], Cameroon K000510838
    Jan 1, 1994 Cheek, M. [5834], Cameroon K000540031
    Jan 1, 1994 Wheatley, J.I. [651], Cameroon K000510865
    Jan 1, 1994 Cable, S. [532], Cameroon K000510842
    Jan 1, 1994 Cable, S. [238], Cameroon K000510843
    Jan 1, 1985 Sperling, C.R. [6032], Brazil K001055343
    Jan 1, 1978 Maitland, T.D. [852], Cameroon K000182304
    Dec 1, 1974 Anderson, W.R. [7287], Brazil K001055359
    Jan 1, 1974 Anderson, W.R. [10319], Brazil K001055358
    Sep 1, 1973 Klein, R.M. [10800], Brazil K001055344
    Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [15849], Brazil K001055362
    Jan 1, 1973 Prance, G.T. [8113], Brazil K001055335
    Jan 1, 1973 Prance, G.T. [3550], Brazil K001055336
    Jan 1, 1973 Prance, G.T. [4318], Brazil K001055337
    Hinton, G.B. [10809], Guerrero K000476110
    Maitland, T.D. [84], Cameroon K000182305
    Maitland, T.D. [39B], Cameroon K000182310
    Maitland, T.D. [83], Cameroon K000182313
    Maitland, T.D. [131], Cameroon K000182315
    Maitland, T.D. [853], Cameroon K000182317
    Maitland, T.D. [83], Cameroon K000182322
    Clayton, W.D. [4650], Brazil K001055334
    Clayton, W.D. [4870], Brazil K001055363
    Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Rodrigues K001097391
    Hatschbach, G. [24298], Brazil K001055330
    Lindeman, J.C. [4886], Brazil K001055355
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Ecuador K000201667
    Heringer, E.P. [6865], Brazil K001055364
    Eiten, G. [2550], Brazil K001055328
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6058], Brazil K001055341
    Davidse, G. [11282], Brazil K001055356
    Castellanos, A. [22660], Brazil K001055331
    Castellanos, A. [23459], Brazil K001055332
    Luetzelburg [6043], Brazil K001055329
    Smith, L.B. [1403], Brazil K001055313
    Smith, L.B. [6177], Brazil K001055361
    Merrill, E.D. [3203], Philippines K000290288 isotype
    Merrill, E.D. [4511], Philippines K000290289
    Thonning [s.n], Guinea K000257025 holotype
    Migeod, F. [24], Cameroon K000182306
    Preuss, P.R. [1305], Cameroon K000182307
    Unkown [s.n], Nigeria K000257024 Unknown type material
    Staudt, A. [450], Cameroon K000182314
    Lanna Sobrinho, J.P. [214], Brazil K001055333
    Saito, Y. [15], Brazil K001055353
    Dombrowski, L.T. [3388], Brazil K001055352
    Mexia, Y. [5642], Brazil K001055319
    Hatschbach, G.G. [18811], Brazil K001055346
    Hatschbach, G.G. [15833], Brazil K001055348
    Hatschbach, G.G. [14209], Brazil K001055349
    Hatschbach, G.G. [44827], Brazil K001055351
    Lins, E.A.M. [415], Brazil K001055347
    Brunt, M.A. [1188], Cameroon K000182311
    Dombrowski, T.L. [4641], Brazil K001055357
    Aug 11, 1999 Brown, R. [6133], New South Wales Orthopogon imbecillis K000278290 isotype
    Vink, W. [16332], Papua New Guinea Oplismenus aemulus K000290290 isotype
    Cuming, H. [1377] Panicum brevisetum K000649529
    s.coll. [1379] Panicum brevisetum K000649530
    s.coll. [1379] Panicum brevisetum K000674315
    s.coll. [1379] Panicum brevisetum K000674316

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 54, 170 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 401.
    • in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 19
    • Chev. Bot. 733
    • F.T.A. 9: 631
    • Ess. Agrost. 54, 170 (1812)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0