1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus occidentalis Witono & J.Dransf.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Jawa.

    [PW]
    Vernacular
    Rotan tunggal (Indonesian - solitary rattan in reference to the single-stemmed habit)
    Biology
    Ujung Kulon, West Java (endemic?); occurring in rather disturbed primary and secondary lowland rain forest overlying recent coral limestone and volcanics at altitudes up to about 200 m.
    General Description
    Solitary high-climbing rattan with stem reaching to 100 m in length, looping in lower part of stem. Stem without sheaths to 30 mm diam., with sheaths to 70 mm diam.; internodes 18 - 30 cm long. Leaf sheath green when fresh, drying brownish green, covered in caducous brown indumentum, and armed with short black irregularly arranged spines, to 15 x 2 mm with pale bases; knee conspicuous, unarmed; ocrea ill-defined. Leaves cirrate to 3 m long including cirrus; cirrus up to 1.5 m long with brown claws; petiole in adult plants absent or to 2 cm long; rachis green, flattened adaxially, convex abaxially, armed with irregularly arranged brown spines on adaxial side and black claws on abaxial side, adaxial side more densely armed than the abaxial side, spines; leaflets up to 20 on each side of rachis, regularly arranged, 4 - 9 cm apart, lanceolate, apex acuminate, base acute, middle longest, 15 - 31 x 3 - 5 cm, the surfaces concolorous, green when fresh, drying yellowish green, mid- and marginal veins on adaxial surface armed with black bristles, secondary parallel veins very thin. Staminate inflorescence eflagellate, branched to 3 orders, partial inflorescences up to 17, the longest to 62 cm long; rachis bracts tightly tubular, to 9 x 1.5 cm, armed rather densely with black tipped, reflexed spines distally; rachillae to 22 mm long, sessile, basally enclosed by the bract, with c. 12 - 15 flowers on each side; rachilla bracts and bracteoles explanate, with dentate margins and bearing sparse brown scales. Staminate flower (immature) globular, c. 2 mm diam.; calyx to 1.5 mm, split to 0.75 mm; petals c. 2 x 1 mm, shining; stamens very immature. Pistillate inflorescence to 1.5 m long, similar to the staminate but branching to two orders only and with longer, more robust rachillae, to 10 - 25 cm long, bearing 8 - 20 rather distant dyads on each side; rachilla bracts explanate, striate, bearing scattered brown scales; involucrophore very short, less than 1 mm high. Sterile staminate flower to 2.2 x 1.1 mm; calyx 3-lobed, to 1 x 1.5 mm, basal tube to 2 x 1 mm; petals to 2 x 1 mm; sterile stamens to 1 x 0.3 mm. Pistillate flower larger than the staminate; calyx to 2.5 mm, with glabrous, striate triangular lobes to 1 x 2 mm; petals to 3 x 1.5 mm; ovary 1 mm in diameter, ellipsoid, tipped with 3 stigmas. Flowers of both sexes at anthesis smelling of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. Fruit globose-ovoid, 18 - 19 x 12 - 14 mm, covered in 15 vertical rows of straw-coloured scales. Seed c. 10 mm diam., irregularly pitted and warted; endosperm deeply ruminate; embryo basal.
    Diagnostic
    inter species Javanicas habitu solitario, magnitudine grande, foliis cirratis foliolis late lanceolatis, rachillis sessilibus rectis distinctissima; ad sectionem Phyllanthectum Furtadonis (Gregem XV Beccari) pertinens, C. manan et speciebus propinquis affinis sed vaginis folii spinis parvis dispersis indumento badio dense tectis et fructo parvo semine irregulariter foveolato pustulatoque differt.

    Images

    Distribution

    Calamus occidentalis Witono & J.Dransf. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 9, 1999 Dransfield, J. [1437], Indonesia K000521596
    Dransfield, J. [JD 1483], Jawa K000207845 isotype

    First published in Kew Bull. 53: 747 (1998)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Witono & J. Dransfield, A new species of Calamus (Palmae) from Java. 1998

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0