1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Calotropis R.Br.
      1. Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, N. & Tropical Africa to Indo-China.

    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae (part 2), David Goyder, Timothy Harris, Siro Masinde, Ulrich Meve, Johan Venter. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2012

    Peduncles
    Peduncles robust, 3–8 cm long, very occasionally absent.
    Bracts
    Bracts caducous, ovate-lanceolate, 7–12 mm long, acute.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels slender, 10–35 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx lobes ovate, 4–5 × 3–4 mm, acute or subacute
    Corolla
    Corolla white with purple tips to the lobes, campanulate, united for ± 1/3 of its length, glabrous; lobes erect or spreading, ovate, 7–10 × 6–7 mm, acute
    Corona
    Corona white or purple; lobes 5–6 × ± 3 mm, oblong, obliquely truncate or rounded, cleft radially in the upper half, minutely scabrid along the margins, basal spur ± 2 mm long
    Gynostegium
    Gynostegium ± 7 mm high, the head of the column forming a drum ± 2 × 5 mm; corpusculum ± 0.4 mm long, slightly winged; translator arms 0.2–0.3 mm long.
    Pollinia
    Pollinia 1.2–1.5 × 0.6–0.7 mm
    Fruits
    Follicles ovoid to subglobose, 8–13 cm long, with one side somewhat flattened, obtuse or depressed at the apex
    Seeds
    Seeds ovate, ± 7 × 5 mm, with a narrow rim, minutely pubescent
    Figures
    Fig 89, p 369
    Ecology
    Close to villages on disturbed or degraded land, usually on sand, also along banks of dry river beds in the north; (0–)400–1400 m
    Habit
    Succulent shrub, 2–5 m tall, stout, weakly to strongly branched; young parts shortly tomentose, often appearing farinose, glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves with petiole up to 5 mm long; lamina ovate, oblong-ovate, elliptic or more usually broadly obovate, 7–26 × 4–15.5 cm, apex rounded or obtuse with a short acuminate tip, base cordate, often obscuring the petiole, slightly succulent, with conspicuous midrib and arched lateral veins, glaucous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences many-flowered, usually with at least 2 major branches each with successive subumbelliform clusters of flowers.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Range: Drier parts of tropical Africa, Arabia and south Asia, naturalised elsewhere in the tropics

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Uganda, Vietnam, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Aruba, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Iraq, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Queensland, South Australia, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Western Australia, Windward Is.

    Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 20, 1989 Wight, R. [91 B] K000910116 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1982 Lewis, G.P. [1108], Brazil K001060855 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1980 Mori, S.A. [12838], Brazil K001060861
    Jan 1, 1974 Irwin, H.S. [31603], Brazil K001060854
    Jan 1, 1966 Eiten, G. [4905], Brazil K001060857
    33690.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [5021], Nigeria 23663.000
    Greenway, P.J. [10396], Kenya 3407.000
    Harley, R.M. [15318], Brazil 45728.000
    Harley, R.M. [15318], Brazil K001060862
    Harley, R.M. [19089], Brazil K001060863 isolectotype
    Mclintock [8], Cameroon 23281.000
    Smith, A.R. [249A], Yemen 30641.000
    Lewis, G.P. [1108], Brazil 44666.000
    Lewis, G.P. [s.n.], Brazil K001060856
    Ratter, J.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001060858
    Ratter, J.A. [R 2679], Brazil K001060859
    Goyder, D.J. [3212], Malawi 56158.000
    Welwitsch [4180], Cape Verde K001134229
    Batt, G., Ethiopia 7631.000
    Agra, M.F. [1555], Brazil K001060860
    Wight, R. [91 a], Myanmar K000910115 Unknown type material
    Brunner [54] K001134244
    Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134231
    Cardoso, J. [173], Cape Verde K001134230
    s.coll. [91 B], Bihar K000910117
    Moseley [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134232
    Bolle, C.B. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134228
    Mar 20, 1989 Royle, H.B. [s.n.], Uttar Pradesh Calotropis hamiltonii K000910118 syntype
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8215], India Calotropis hamiltonii K001129266
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8215], India Calotropis hamiltonii K001129262
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8215], India Calotropis hamiltonii K001129263
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8215] Calotropis hamiltonii K001129264
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8215] Calotropis hamiltonii K001129265
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8216], Myanmar Calotropis wallichii K001129267

    First published in Hortus Kew. 2: 78 (1811)

    Accepted by

    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Goyder, S., Harris, T., Masinde, S., Meve, U. & Venter, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Apocynaceae(2): 1-530.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Rapini, A. (2010). Revisitando as Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) da Cadeia do Espiniaço Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 28: 97-123.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. & al. (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 6: 1-408. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jagtap, A.P. & Singh, N.P. (1999). Fascicles of Flora of India 24: 1-332. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1996). Flora of Australia 28: 1-335. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Z. Wu & P.H. Raven (1995). Gentianaceae through Boraginaceae Flora of China 16: 1-479. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) in Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1984). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 1: 1-330. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
    • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Guinea, E. (1948). Catálogo razonado de las plantas del Sáhara Español Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 8: 357-429.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Goyder, S., Harris, T., Masinde, S., Meve, U. & Venter, J. (2012). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Apocynaceae(2): 1-530.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2012). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2009). Flora Mesoamericana 4(1): 1-855. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • USDA, NRCS (2005-continuously updated). Natural Resources Conservation Services Plant Database http://plants.usda.gov/cgi_bin/topics.cgi?earl=checklist.html.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jagtap, A.P. & Singh, N.P. (1999). Fascicles of Flora of India 24: 1-332. Botanical Survey of India, New Delhi.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1996). Flora of Australia 28: 1-335. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 144 (2006).
    • Fl. Eth. 4(1): 119, fig. 140.12 (2003)
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    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 177 (1994)
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    • Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edin. 38: 290 (1980)
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 91 (1963)
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    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0