1. Family: Talinaceae (Fenzl) Doweld
    1. Genus: Talinum Adans.
      1. Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Portulacaceae, Sylvia M. Phillips. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Habit
    Shrubby perennial from a tuberous root; stems erect, up to 1 m high, not branched or only sparsely at the base, becoming softly woody below.
    Leaves
    Leaves elliptic to obovate, up to 11 cm long and 5 cm wide, base cuneate, apex abruptly acute, sessile or with a pedicel to 15 mm long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, a large, many-flowered, thyrsiform panicle, central axis 15–40 cm long, the lateral dichasia spreading with very slender, stiff peduncles and pedicels bearing up to 30 flowers. Flowers ± 1 cm wide, opening towards evening; sepals suborbicular, deeply concave, 1–1.5 mm long; petals obovate to orbicular, pink; stamens 15–20.
    Fruits
    Capsule globose, yellow or pinkish-yellow, 3–5 mm high; seeds lenticular, subreniform, ± 1 mm in diameter, black, glossy, the testa cells smooth or tubercled, elongated in concentric rings, minutely pitted at the cell corners.
    Habitat
    Introduced weed or garden escape; 1200–1700 m
    Distribution
    K4 U4 scattered localities across tropical Africa, especially Nigerianative of tropical America, now a pantropical weed
    [KBu]

    Mendoza F., J. & Wood, J.R.I. 2013. Taxonomic revision of Talinum (Talinaceae) in Bolivia with a note on the occurrence of Phemeranthus (Montiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9454-0

    Habit
    Erect or ascending fleshy herb, 0.8 – 1.2 m high; roots elongate, thickened, not napiform; central stem solitary, fleshy, arising from a slightly swollen base; branching from the base upwards, moderate to abundant
    Leaves
    Leaves in a small rosette in young plants, alternate on the stem nearly from the base, numerous; petioles 2 – 7 mm long; laminas fleshy, oblong or elliptic, (2 –) 6 – 11 (– 18) × (1 –) 2 – 5 (– 7) cm, apex apiculate, base finely attenuate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of compact terminal panicles, 20 – 35 (– 60) × 14 – 25 cm, branches forming lateral cymes borne on short, straight, terete peduncles 2 – 3 (– 4) cm long; cymes divided 3 – 5 times, secondary axes terete, 1.3 – 2 (– 3.5) cm long; bracts and bracteoles reduced, triangular, 1 – 1.5 mm long; pedicels filiform, slightly swollen below the flowers, 12 – 15 mm long
    Flowers
    Flowers open by day between 08 and 17 hours, small, ± 0.5 cm diam., numerous, > 50 per panicle; sepals 2, broadly ovate, 1 – 1.2 × 0.8 – 1 mm, subequal, caducous; petals obovate, bright yellow, base straight, apex incurved, concave, truncate; filaments 10 – 12, unequal; anthers hemispherical, bright yellow; style equalling or shorter than the filaments, filiform, scarcely swollen at the apex, stigma trifid
    Fruits
    Fruit a weakly 3-angled subglobose capsule opening by three separate, rapidly caducous valves; intervalvular membrane present, caducous but held up briefly by an intervalvular filament; seeds (Fig. 1C) subglobose, 1 – 1.2 × 0.9 – 1 mm, black, superficially papillose, the papillae arranged irregularly in the centre but more numerous and in concentric rings towards the edge, irregular pores between the papillae; caruncle membranous, white-hyaline, reduced or absent, caducous
    Distribution
    A widely distributed species, which is a common weed in tropical America from the United States through Mexico and the Caribbean region south to northern Argentina. In Bolivia it is frequent to abundant in the lowlands of Pando, Beni and Santa Cruz and in the Andean region from La Paz south to Tarija. It is found principally in dry forest in the Chaco, Chiquitania and the inter-Andean dry valleys but also occurs in more humid forest both in the Amazon basin and on the eastern slopes of the Andes. It prefers disturbed areas and often colonises cleared areas such as banks around cultivation and roadsides, where it grows amongst herbs and shrubs in full sun between 120 and 2300 m.
    Conservation
    A widespread neotropical weed which can be categorised as Least Concern (LC) within the IUCN (2001) guidelines.
    Note
    In Bolivia Talinum paniculatum can be confused with T. nocturnumBacigalupo and to a lesser extent with T. porphyreum M. Mend. & J. R. I. Wood (described below), the characters which distinguish it from these species being discussed under these two species respectively.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Bangladesh, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., Fiji, Galápagos, Hainan, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madeira, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Northern Provinces, St.Helena, Swaziland, Uganda, Zaïre

    Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2006 Projeto Flora Cristalino [164], Mato Grosso K000447291
    Jan 1, 1987 Lindheimer, F. [580], Texas K000641669 isotype
    Jan 1, 1987 Lindheimer, F. [580], Texas K000641670 isotype

    First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 219 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Mendoza F., J.M. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). Taxonomic revision of Talinum (Talinaceae) in Bolivia with a note on the occurrence of Phemeranthus (Montiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 233-247. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Shou, H.Y., Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2012). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China (2) Plant Diversity and Resources 34: 347-353.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Phillips, S.M. (2002). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Portulacaceae: 1-40.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.

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    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Mendoza F., J.M. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). Taxonomic revision of Talinum (Talinaceae) in Bolivia with a note on the occurrence of Phemeranthus (Montiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 233-247. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Shou, H.Y., Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2012). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China (2) Plant Diversity and Resources 34: 347-353.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
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    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Phillips, S.M. (2002). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Portulacaceae: 1-40.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/