1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Chrysopogon Trin.
      1. Chrysopogon nigritanus (Benth.) Veldkamp

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial; culms 150–300 cm high, unbranched, the uppermost nodes exposed, glabrous; ligule scarious with shortly ciliate margin or a line of hairs on an extremely short scarious rim; leaf laminas up to 90 cm × 7 mm, narrow.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 15–40 cm long, lanceolate; main axis minutely ciliolate; whorls 8–10 each with up to 15 racemes; racemes very slender; rhachis internodes longer than the spikelets, glabrous; pedicels shorter than the sessile spikelets, glabrous.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet c. 7 mm long, narrowly linear-lanceolate; inferior glume coriaceous, spinulose on the back; superior glume coriaceous to chartaceous, sharply keeled in the middle and with inflexed margins, spinulose along the keel, drawn out into a shortly aristate tip; inferior floret with ovate hyaline lemma; superior floret bisexual, the lemma hyaline with a bilobed apex; awn c. 5 mm long, sometimes slightly exserted from the glumes, glabrous on the column, minutely scabrid on the bristle.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet neuter, shorter than the sessile; glumes similar to those of the sessile spikelet but less coriaceous and less spinulose; inferior glume c. 5 mm long, sparingly aculeolate along the keel towards the apex or almost smooth; superior glume smooth with flexible ciliate margins; inferior lemma hyaline with ciliate margins. Sessile spikelet c. 7 mm long, narrowly linear-lanceolate; inferior glume coriaceous, spinulose on the back; superior glume coriaceous to chartaceous, sharply keeled in the middle and with inflexed margins, spinulose along the keel, drawn out into a shortly aristate tip; inferior floret with ovate hyaline lemma; superior floret bisexual, the lemma hyaline with a bilobed apex; awn c. 5 mm long, sometimes slightly exserted from the glumes, glabrous on the column, minutely scabrid on the bristle.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet neuter, shorter than the sessile; glumes similar to those of the sessile spikelet but less coriaceous and less spinulose; inferior glume c. 5 mm long, sparingly aculeolate along the keel towards the apex or almost smooth; superior glume smooth with flexible ciliate margins; inferior lemma hyaline with ciliate margins.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Roots aromatic. Rhizomes short. Basal innovations intravaginal; flabellate. Culms erect; 150-300 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 30-90 cm long; 4-7 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; lanceolate; 15-40 cm long. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; simple. Racemes 5-15 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Raceme-bases filiform; pubescent; hairy at tip. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; linear; dorsally compressed; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; scabrous; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square; bearded; base obtuse; inserted. Spikelet callus hairs white; 0.15 length of spikelet.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; linear; dorsally compressed; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; scabrous; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; compressed slightly; 4.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square; bearded; base obtuse; inserted. Spikelet callus hairs white; 0.15 length of spikelet.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; without keels; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface spinose; rough generally. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; 1-keeled. Upper glume primary vein spinulose. Upper glume muticous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 1 length of spikelet; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliolate on margins. Fertile lemma oblong; 2-3 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; flexuous; 2-12 mm long overall; not or scarcely exserted from spikelet. Palea 0.3-0.5 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Robust perennial 1·2–2·4 m. high, growing in clumps
    Ecology
    Stream sides and swampy flood plains.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial; culms 1.5–3 m. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrow, up to 90 cm. long and 7 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle lanceolate, 15–40 cm. long, its longest raceme 5–15 cm.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet 4.5–7 mm. long, including the bearded (hairs 0.5–1 mm.) callus which is rounded to fit the slightly hollowed tip of the internode; lower glume spinulose; upper glume awnless; upper lemma with a straight or curved awn l–4(–9) mm. long, usually protruding from the glumes but sometimes enclosed by them.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 4.5–7 mm. long, including the bearded (hairs 0.5–1 mm.) callus which is rounded to fit the slightly hollowed tip of the internode; lower glume spinulose; upper glume awnless; upper lemma with a straight or curved awn l–4(–9) mm. long, usually protruding from the glumes but sometimes enclosed by them.
    Figures
    Fig. 172.
    Habitat
    Flood plains and other seasonally flooded places; 0–1100 m.
    Distribution
    tropical Africa, Sri Lanka and Thailand, with sporadic records from Malaysia and the Philippines T4 T6 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Vetiver grass

    Chrysopogon nigritanus (Benth.) Veldkamp appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Vogel [18], Nigeria K000280695 holotype
    Oct 3, 1962 Kmoch [119], Burkina Faso Vetiveria nigritana K000386170
    Chevalier, A. [1353], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386177
    Chevalier, A. [1353], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386178
    Hepper, F.N. [3811], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386172
    Hepper, F.N. [3811], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386173
    Davey, J.T. [18], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386174
    Scholz [17], Burkina Faso Vetiveria nigritana K000386169
    Matthes, H.D.r. [2], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386176
    Rogeon, J.-.F. [239], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386175
    Sihvonen, J. [168], Burkina Faso Vetiveria nigritana K000386168
    Leau, O.B. [9], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386179
    Leau, O.B. [87], Mali Vetiveria nigritana K000386180

    First published in Austrobaileya 5: 526 (1999)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/