1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Euphorbia L.
      1. Euphorbia hirta L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Annual herb, prostrate to ascending, with branches to 50 cm. long, the whole plant pilose, including the inflorescence and capsule, with minute white adpressed hairs interspersed by yellow spreading segmented hairs ± 1.5 mm. long principally on the branches and especially on younger growth.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate, 1–4 × 0.5–2 cm., base very obliquely rounded, apex subacute, margin finely toothed, upper surface sometimes almost glabrous, often blotched with purple especially in the region of the midrib; petiole to 3.5 mm. long; stipules linear, rarely laciniate on lush specimens, to 2.5 mm. long.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia in dense capitate, terminal and axillary cymes to 15 mm. in diameter on peduncles to 15(–20) mm. long, occasionally subtended by 1–2 small leafy bracts ± 1 cm. long; cyathial peduncles to 1 mm. long; bracts deltoid, deeply laciniate to 1 mm. long. Cyathia ± 0.8 × 0.8 mm. with cup-shaped involucres, usually tinged with purple; glands 4, minute, elliptical, green or purplish, with minute entire white to pink appendages; lobes triangular, fimbriate.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:bracteoles linear, fimbriate; stamens 1 mm. long. Female flower:ovary shortly pedicellate; styles 0.4 mm. long, spreading, bifid almost to the base, with thickened apices.
    Male
    Male flowers:bracteoles linear, fimbriate; stamens 1 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flower:ovary shortly pedicellate; styles 0.4 mm. long, spreading, bifid almost to the base, with thickened apices.
    Fruits
    Capsule just exserted on a pedicel 1 mm. long, acutely 3-lobed, with truncate base, 1 × 1.25 mm., pilose with short yellow adpressed hairs.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong-conical, 0.8 × 0.4 mm., pinkish brown, with slight transverse wrinkles.
    Habitat
    Cultivated land, roadsides and waste places; 0–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 a very common pantropical weed native to Central America
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Annual herb, prostrate to ascending, with branches to 50 cm long; whole plant pilose, including inflorescence and capsules, with minute white appressed hairs interspersed by yellow spreading segmented hairs c. 1.5 mm long principally on the branches and especially on younger growth.
    Leaves
    Leaves with a petiole to 3.5 mm long; stipules to 2.5 mm long, linear, rarely laciniate on lush specimens; lamina 1–4 × 0.5–2 cm, ovate, apex subacute, base very obliquely rounded, margin finely toothed, upper surface sometimes almost glabrous, often blotched with purple especially in the region of the midrib.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes terminal and axillary, densely capitate to 15 mm diameter on peduncles to 15(20) mm long, occasionally subtended by 1–2 leaf-like bracts c. 1 cm long; cyathial peduncles to 1 mm long.
    Bracts
    Bracts to 1 mm long, deltoid, deeply laciniate.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia c. 0.8 × 0.8 mm, with cup-shaped involucres, usually tinged purple; glands 4, minute, elliptical, green or purplish, with minute entire white to pink appendages; lobes triangular, fimbriate.
    Male
    Male flowers: bracteoles linear, fimbriate; stamens 1 mm long.
    Flowers
    Female flower: ovary shortly pedicellate; styles 0.4 mm long, spreading, bifid almost to the base, with thickened apices. Male flowers: bracteoles linear, fimbriate; stamens 1 mm long.
    Female
    Female flower: ovary shortly pedicellate; styles 0.4 mm long, spreading, bifid almost to the base, with thickened apices.
    Fruits
    Capsule just exserted on a pedicel 1 mm long, 1 × 1.25 mm, acutely 3-lobed with truncate base, pilose with short yellow appressed hairs.
    Seeds
    Seeds 0.8 × 0.4 mm, oblong-conical with obscure transverse wrinkles, pinkish-brown.
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    An erect or decumbent herb, to 18 in. high, sometimes purple-tinged
    Note
    A common weed.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Central American Pac, Chile Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Ascension, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Howland-Baker Is., India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Phoenix Is., Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South China Sea, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Dove milk

    Euphorbia hirta L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2010 Darbyshire, I. [204], Cameroon K000683093
    Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [10909], Guerrero K000476523
    Jan 1, 2008 Pringle, C.G. [8730], Morelos K000476518
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1785], Cameroon K000026642
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1598], Cameroon K000026643
    Jan 1, 1987 Etuge, M. [374], Cameroon K000180547
    Harley, R.M. [17461], Brazil K001210518
    Harley, R.M. [21085], Brazil K001210519
    Hinton, G.B. [4959], México State K000476519
    Hinton, G.B. [4959], México State K000476520
    Hinton, G.B. [195], México State K000476521
    Hinton, G.B. [9186], Guerrero K000476522
    Hinton, G.B. [757], México State K000476526
    Philcox, D. [4275], Brazil K001210512
    Trail, J.W.H. [719], Brazil K001210503
    Trail, J.W.H. [719], Brazil K001210504
    Hutchinson, J. [135], Cameroon K000180552
    Balls, E.K. [B4485], Mexico K000297337
    Fevereiro, V.P.B. [M/150], Brazil K001210520
    Ganev, W. [387], Brazil K001210510
    Irwin, H.S. [26256], Brazil K001210511
    Irwin, H.S. [35061], Brazil K001210521
    Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K001210488
    Eiten, G. [10312], Brazil K001210517
    Anderson, W.R. [37132], Brazil K001210516
    Sobral, M. [4715], Brazil K001210487
    Pringle, C.G. [3190], San Luis Potosí K000476524
    Pringle, C.G. [11171], Morelos K000576525
    Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001210495
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001210498
    Archer, W.A. [7673], Brazil K001210500
    Burchell, W.J. [5719], Brazil K001210490
    Burchell, W.J. [s.n.], Brazil K001210505
    Dusén, P. [17052], Brazil K001210499
    Cardoso, J. [47], Cape Verde K001035918
    Teijsmann, J.E. [s.n.], Cocos (Keeling) Is. K001080167
    Teixeira, L.O.A. [396], Brazil K001210508
    Balée, W.L. [942], Brazil K001210509
    Lanjouw, J. [1444], Suriname K001210496
    Langalssé, E. [416], Mexico K000478123
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [4975], Brazil K001210501
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [13187], Brazil K001210502
    s.coll. [s.n.], Timor-Leste K001080166
    s.coll. [s.n.], Timor-Leste K001040201
    s.coll. [695], Brazil K001210492
    s.coll. [534], Brazil K001210493
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001210494
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001210506
    Pereira, M.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001210507
    Moseley [s.n.], Brazil K001210491
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001210489
    Simpson, J.H. [464], Florida Euphorbia gemella K001080408 isotype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 454 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Dimopoulos, P. & al. (2016). Vascular plants of Greece: An annotated checklist. Supplement Willdenowia 46: 301-347.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Hand, R. (ed.) (2015). Supplementary notes to the flora of Cyprus VIII Willdenowia 45: 245-259.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Halford, D.A. & Harris, W.K. (2012). A taxonomic revision of Euphorbia section Anisophyllum Roeper (Euphorbiaceae) in Australia Austrobaileya 8: 441-600.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Yang, Y., Riina, R., Morawetz, J.J., Haevermans, T., Aubriot, X. & Berry, P.E. (2012). Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) Taxon 61: 764-789.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Lebrun, J.-P. (1998). Catalogue des plantes de la Mauritanie et du Sahara Occidental Boissiera 55: 1-322.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

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    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Halford, D.A. & Harris, W.K. (2012). A taxonomic revision of Euphorbia section Anisophyllum Roeper (Euphorbiaceae) in Australia Austrobaileya 8: 441-600.
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    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan2: 71 (1952).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 254 (1949).
    • A.J. Jex-Blake, Some Wild Flowers of Kenya p. 36 (1948).
    • N.E. Br. in Fl. Cap. 5(2): 249 (1915).
    • N.E. Br. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 496 (1911)
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 454 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/