1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Euphorbia L.
      1. Euphorbia prostrata Aiton

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central U.S.A. to Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A prostrate spreading herb
    Stem
    Stems slender 2–8 in. long radiating from the tough root
    Ecology
    A weed of footpaths, etc.
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Prostrate much-branched annual herb, the whole plant often tinged purplish; branches to 20 cm long, glabrous on the underside, pilose above with short curled hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves with a petiole to 1 mm long; stipules free on the upper surface of the branch, 0.5 mm long, triangular, pilose, joined on the lower surface to 1 mm long, forming a broad triangle with 2 unequal teeth; lamina to 8 × 5 mm, ovate, rounded at the apex, obliquely rounded at the base, obscurely toothed at the margin, upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely pilose towards the apex.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia terminal and pseudoaxillary on short leafy shoots, solitary on peduncles to 1.25 mm long, 1 × 0.6 mm, with barrel-shaped involucres; glands 4, minute, red, with minute white or pink appendages; lobes minute, triangular, pilose.
    Male
    Male flowers few: bracteoles hair-like; stamens 1 mm long.
    Flowers
    Female flower: ovary pedicellate; styles 0.2 mm long, spreading, bifid to the base. Male flowers few: bracteoles hair-like; stamens 1 mm long.
    Female
    Female flower: ovary pedicellate; styles 0.2 mm long, spreading, bifid to the base.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted on a reflexed pilose pedicel 1.5 mm long, 1.25 × 1.25 mm, acutely 3-lobed with a truncate base; the base and purple-tinged sutures beset with long spreading hairs.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1 × 0.5 mm, oblong-conical, acutely 4-angled, with numerous distinct transverse ridges and grooves, greyish-brown.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Prostrate much-branched annual herb, with branches to 20 cm. long, glabrous on the underside, pilose above with short curled hairs, the whole plant often tinged purplish.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate, to 8 × 5 mm, base obliquely rounded, apex rounded, margin obscurely toothed, upper surface glabrous, lower surface sparsely pilose towards the apex; petiole to 1 mm. long; stipules pilose, free on the upper surface of the branch, triangular, 0.5 mm. long, joined on the lower surface to form a broad triangle to 1 mm. long with 2 unequal teeth.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia solitary on peduncles 1.25 mm. long, terminal and pseudoaxillary on short leafy shoots, 1 × 0.6 mm, with barrel-shaped involucres; glands 4, minute, red, with minute white or pink appendages; lobes minute, triangular, pilose.
    Male
    Male flowers few:bracteoles hair-like; stamens 1 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Female flower:ovary pedicellate; styles 0.2 mm. long, spreading, bifid to the base. Male flowers few:bracteoles hair-like; stamens 1 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flower:ovary pedicellate; styles 0.2 mm. long, spreading, bifid to the base.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted on a reflexed pilose pedicel 1.5 mm. long, acutely 3-lobed, with truncate base, 1.25 × 1.25 mm, the base and purple-tinged sutures beset with long spreading hairs.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong-conical, acutely 4-angled, 1 × 0.5 mm, grey-brown, with numerous distinct transverse ridges and grooves.
    Figures
    Fig. 78/2, p. 422.
    Habitat
    Disturbed ground in gardens, cultivated land and by roadsides especially in dry sandy soil; 0–2040 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K4 K5 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U2 U3 introduced from the West Indies, a common weed throughout the tropics and subtropics

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cayman Is., Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, South Dakota, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Arkansas, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Free State, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hawaii, Hungary, Illinois, India, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Kriti, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madeira, Malawi, Marcus I., Marquesas, Mozambique, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Phoenix Is., Portugal, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Samoa, Sardegna, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Spain, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Switzerland, Tennessee, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Euphorbia prostrata Aiton appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2012 Pringle, C.G. [6436], México Distrito Federal K000476664 isotype
    Jan 1, 2008 Pringle, C.G. [3781], San Luis Potosí K000476481
    Burchell, W.J. [8890], Brazil K001210654
    Lobin, W. [2360], Cape Verde K001105487
    Lobin, W. [2284], Cape Verde K001105484
    Lobin, W. [2512], Cape Verde K001105486
    Lobin, W. [1637], Cape Verde K001105483
    Lobin, W. [2551], Cape Verde K001105485
    Lobin, W. [368], Cape Verde K001105482
    Douglas, D. [s.n.], Brazil K001210655
    Cardoso, J. [92], Cape Verde K001105488
    Cardoso, J. [190], Cape Verde K001105481
    Isabelle [s.n.], Brazil K001210656
    Glaziou, A. [9576], Brazil K001210653
    Afonso, L. [34], Brazil K001210657
    Sheahan, M.C. [MCS329], United Kingdom K000696763

    First published in Hort. Kew. 2: 139 (1789)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.
    • Hohla, M. (2014). Hystrix patula - neu für Österrei, sowie weitere Beiträge zur Flora von Obenösterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark und Vorarlberg Stapfia 101: 83-100.
    • Hadinec, J. & Lustyk, P. (eds.) (2014). Additamenta ad floram Reipublicae Bohemicae. XII Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 49: 73-206.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Bátori, Z., Erdös, L. & Somlyay, L. (2012). Euphorbia prostrata (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien in the Carpathian basin Acta Botanica Hungarica 54: 235-243.
    • Halford, D.A. & Harris, W.K. (2012). A taxonomic revision of Euphorbia section Anisophyllum Roeper (Euphorbiaceae) in Australia Austrobaileya 8: 441-600.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Yang, Y., Riina, R., Morawetz, J.J., Haevermans, T., Aubriot, X. & Berry, P.E. (2012). Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) Taxon 61: 764-789.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Pahlevani, A.H. & Riina, R. (2011). A synopsis of Euphorbia subgen. Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) in Iran Annales Botanici Fennici 48: 304-316.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

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    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
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    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
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    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Bátori, Z., Erdös, L. & Somlyay, L. (2012). Euphorbia prostrata (Euphorbiaceae), a new alien in the Carpathian basin Acta Botanica Hungarica 54: 235-243.
    • Halford, D.A. & Harris, W.K. (2012). A taxonomic revision of Euphorbia section Anisophyllum Roeper (Euphorbiaceae) in Australia Austrobaileya 8: 441-600.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
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    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
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    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
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    • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0