1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Euphorbia L.
      1. Euphorbia serpens Kunth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Easter Island, SE. Canada to Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Annual much-branched herb, prostrate, with branches to 10(–20) cm. long, the whole plant completely glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves subcircular, 1–3 mm. in diameter, base obliquely cordate, margin entire; petiole 0.2–0.5 mm. long; stipules united at the swollen nodes, triangular, ± 0.5 × 1 mm., with toothed margin.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia solitary on peduncles to 2 mm. long, terminal and pseudoaxillary on short leafy shoots, ± 0.7 × 0.7 mm., with cup-shaped involucres; glands 4, minute, transversely elliptic, with small white shallowly lobed petaloid appendages; involucral lobes minute, margin fringed.
    Male
    Male flowers:bracteoles laciniate; stamens 0.7 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Female flower:perianth evident as a 3-lobed rim below the shortly pedicellate ovary; styles 0.2 mm. long, spreading, bifid almost to the base. Male flowers:bracteoles laciniate; stamens 0.7 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flower:perianth evident as a 3-lobed rim below the shortly pedicellate ovary; styles 0.2 mm. long, spreading, bifid almost to the base.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted on a reflexed pedicel to 1.8 mm. long, obtusely 3-lobed, with truncate base, ± 1.5 × 1.8 mm., yellowish green.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong-conical, 1 × 0.6 mm., greyish pink, smooth.
    Habitat
    Not known, probably by the roadside; 560 m.
    Distribution
    K7 a pantropical weed but in E. Africa known only from this collection
    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, S. Carter & L.C. Leach. Flora Zambesiaca 9:5. 2001

    Habit
    Much-branched prostrate annual herb, with branches to 10(20) cm long, completely glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves with a petiole 0.2–0.5 mm long; stipules united at the swollen nodes, 0.5 × 1 mm, triangular with toothed margins; lamina 1–3 mm long, subcircular, obliquely cordate at the base, margins entire.
    Cyathia
    Cyathia terminal and pseudoaxillary on short leafy shoots, solitary on peduncles to 2 mm long, 0.7 × 0.7 mm with cup-shaped involucres; glands 4, minute, transversely elliptic, with small white shallowly lobed appendages; involucral lobes minute, fringed.
    Male
    Male flowers: bracteoles laciniate; stamens 0.7 mm long.
    Flowers
    Female flower: perianth evident as a 3-lobed rim below the shortly pedicellate ovary; styles 0.2 mm long, spreading, bifid almost to the base. Male flowers: bracteoles laciniate; stamens 0.7 mm long.
    Female
    Female flower: perianth evident as a 3-lobed rim below the shortly pedicellate ovary; styles 0.2 mm long, spreading, bifid almost to the base.
    Fruits
    Capsule exserted on a reflexed pedicel to 1.8 mm long, 1.5 × 1.8 mm, obtusely 3-lobed with truncate base, yellowish-green.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1 × 0.6 mm, oblong-conical, smooth, greyish-pink.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Iowa, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Ontario, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, South Dakota, Suriname, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Wyoming

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Andaman Is., Arizona, Austria, Azores, Bangladesh, Burkina, California, Canary Is., Cape Verde, China Southeast, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Free State, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hungary, India, Indiana, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kriti, Morocco, Mozambique, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New York, Ohio, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Sicilia, South Australia, Spain, St.Helena, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Euphorbia serpens Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Hinton, G.B. [5449], Guerrero K000476499
    Jan 1, 2008 Pringle, C.G. [1360], Chihuahua K000476500
    Feb 25, 1982 Lobin, W. [1115], Cape Verde K001105492
    Jan 1, 1966 Pringle, C.G. [3778], San Luis Potosí K000476498
    Jan 1, 1932 Schwarz, F. in Herb Bolus [13027], Zimbabwe K000253048 holotype
    Jan 1, 1932 Drummer, N.A. [s.n.], Mozambique K000253049
    Blanchet [3501], Brazil K001210646
    Smith, L.B. [9755], Brazil K001211233
    Burchell, W.J. [9108], Brazil K001210647
    Lobin, W. [2447a], Cape Verde K001105490
    Lobin, W. [2526], Cape Verde K001105489
    Lobin, W. [2970], Cape Verde K001105491
    Lindheimer, F.J. [532], Texas K001080287
    Lindheimer, F.J. [300], Texas K001080289
    Sinclair [s.n.], Mexico K001210651
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000253851
    Schomburgk, R. [s.n.], Guyana K001210648
    Poeppig [3099], Brazil K001210649
    Nuttall, T. [s.n.], Arkansas K001080286
    Nuttall, T. [s.n.], Arkansas K001080290
    Gattinger, A. [2500], Tennessee K001080288
    Cuezzo, P. [1024], Brazil K001210644
    s.coll. [1078], Suriname K001210650
    Moseley [s.n.], Brazil K001210645
    Wild, H. [44486], Zimbabwe Euphorbia minutiflora 4103.000
    Ekman, E. [16137], Cuba Euphorbia biramensis K000253830 isotype
    Ekman, E. [7764], Dominican Republic Euphorbia inflexa K000253836 Unknown type material
    Touchy, A. [s.n.], France Euphorbia serpens var. fissistipula K000911898
    Thellung, A. [s.n.], France Euphorbia serpens var. fissistipula K000911897

    First published in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 2: 52 (1817)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2015). New floristic records in the Balkans: 26 Phytologia Balcanica 21: 53-91.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2015). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 45: 449-464.
    • Lamont, E.E., Werier, D. & Glenn, S.D. (2014). Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey range - 2011 and 2012 Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 141: 95-108.
    • da Silva, O.L.M., Cordeiro, I. & Caruzo, M.B.R. (2014). Synopsis of Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 181: 193-215.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Halford, D.A. & Harris, W.K. (2012). A taxonomic revision of Euphorbia section Anisophyllum Roeper (Euphorbiaceae) in Australia Austrobaileya 8: 441-600.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Yang, Y., Riina, R., Morawetz, J.J., Haevermans, T., Aubriot, X. & Berry, P.E. (2012). Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) Taxon 61: 764-789.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2015). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 45: 449-464.
    • Lamont, E.E., Werier, D. & Glenn, S.D. (2014). Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey range - 2011 and 2012 Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 141: 95-108.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Halford, D.A. & Harris, W.K. (2012). A taxonomic revision of Euphorbia section Anisophyllum Roeper (Euphorbiaceae) in Australia Austrobaileya 8: 441-600.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Pahlevani, A.H. & Riina, R. (2011). A synopsis of Euphorbia subgen. Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae) in Iran Annales Botanici Fennici 48: 304-316.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Bergmeier, E. (2011). New floristic records, confirmations and other phytogeographical notes from Crete (Greece) Willdenowia 41: 167-177.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970.
    • Binojkumar, M.S. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2010). The genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in India. A taxonomic revision: 1-430. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2008). Med-Checklist Notulae, 27 Willdenowia 38: 465-474.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Chayamarit, K. & Van Welzen, P.C. (2005). Euphorbiaceae (Genera A-F) Flora of Thailand 8(1): 1-303. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • N.E. Br. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 511 (1911).
    • Kunth, Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 52 (1817).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0