1. Family: Cyperaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Eleocharis R.Br.
      1. Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to N. America.

    [FWTA]

    Cyperaceae, Miss S. S. Hooper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Medium sized, closely tufted plant up to 40 cm. high
    Inflorescences
    Brownish, broadly ovate spikelets
    Ecology
    Brackish marshes, edges of mangrove swamps.
    [FTEA]

    Cyperaceae, K Hoenselaar, B. Verdcourt & H. Beentje. Hypolytrum, D Simpson. Fuirena, M Muasya. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2010

    Type
    Lectotype: Jamaica, Herb. Clifford 21, Scirpus 1 (BM–000557653), chosen by Furtado in Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 9: 299 (1937)
    Habit
    Annual herb with tufted culms from a compact base.
    Culms
    Culms 12–45 cm long, irregularly ridged, 0.6–0.9 mm thick.
    Leaf sheaths
    Sheath reddish or purple at base, greyish above, ending in a short triangular acute lobe with hyaline margin.
    Roots
    Root system shallow
    Spikelets
    Spikelet ovoid, 3–4 × 2.5–3.5 mm.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence bracts greenish, covering the glumes in bud.
    Glume
    Glumes grey at base, brown at apex, 1.8–2 × 1.4–1.5 mm, rounded at apex, midrib obscure and sometimes green, margin slightly frayed.
    Perianth
    Perianth bristles ± 7, pink, glabrous, longer than the nutlet
    Stamens
    Stamens 3, the filaments often persisting in fruit
    Style
    Style 2-branched
    Fruits
    Nutlet blackish purple, obovoid, 0.6–0.8 × 0.6–0.7 mm, smooth and shiny; appandage pale grey, minute and conical.
    Ecology
    Lake shores, swamps, mangrove; 0–1150 m
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U4 K7 T3 T6 P Range: West Africa from Senegal to Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, CongoKinshasa, Somalia, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana; widely distrubuted in the temperate and subtropic zones of the World

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Sicilia

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Andaman Is., Arizona, Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritania, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Thailand, Tokelau-Manihiki, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Fiji, Galápagos, Greece, Hawaii, Sardegna, Tonga

    Eleocharis geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2006 Miller, A.G. [6197], Oman K000480642
    Jan 1, 2006 Comanor, P.L. [1137], Sri Lanka K000480630
    Jan 1, 2006 Barritt, M.J.A. [914], Australia K000480645
    Dec 1, 2003 Giulietti, A.M. [1908], Bahia K000189308
    Oct 1, 2003 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1001], Piauí K000189280
    Oct 17, 2001 Marsden, J. [155], Indonesia K000480615
    Jan 1, 1995 Laegaard, S. [16890], Senegal K000480634
    Dec 8, 1992 Ratter, J.A. [6543], Belize K000480652
    Jan 1, 1991 Tanner, R. [3743], Tanzania K000480648
    Jan 1, 1991 Kerr, A.F.G. [9286], Thailand K000595186
    Jan 1, 1991 Hooper, S. [2405], India K000480623
    Jan 1, 1991 Foreman, D.B. [52324], Papua New Guinea K000480616
    Jan 1, 1991 Put [1544], Thailand K000480620
    Jan 1, 1991 Hu, S.Y. [11734], Hong Kong K000480637
    Jan 1, 1991 Liang, H.Y. [65413], China K000480632
    Jan 1, 1987 Thomas, D. [2490], Cameroon K000480650
    Dec 17, 1985 Grimes, J. [1049], Indonesia K000480618
    Oct 1, 1982 Hage, J.L. [1186], Bahia K000189259
    Oct 1, 1982 Cavalo, G.P. [917], Bahia K000189248
    Oct 1, 1982 Cavalo, G.P. [534], Bahia K000189247
    Jan 1, 1981 Carvalho, A.M. [589], Bahia K000189258
    Jan 1, 1981 Carvalho, A.M. [450], Bahia K000189257
    Jan 1, 1979 Field, A. [11], British Indian Ocean Territory K000480647
    Oct 1, 1978 Harley, R.M. [18327], Bahia K000189256
    Jan 1, 1975 Hepper, F.N. [5876], Yemen K000480643
    Jan 1, 1971 Greenwood, W. [925], Fiji K000480635
    Jan 1, 1968 Koyama, T.M. [13593], Sri Lanka K000480628
    Dec 1, 1965 Sigee, D.C. [106], Maldives K000480629
    Jan 1, 1961 Smitinand, T. [5648], Thailand K000595188
    Robinson, E.A. [6958], India K000480624
    Philcox, D. [8073], Trinidad & Tobago K000480655
    Kirk, J. [s.n.] K000416638 Unknown type material
    Hansen, B. [12362], Thailand K000595189
    Leonard, J. [4714], Libya K000480640
    Radcliffe-Smith, A. [5487], Oman K000480639
    Schlechter [9484], South Africa K000416646
    Chantaranothai, P. [676], Thailand K000480619
    Wright, C. [711], New Mexico K000881808
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000189255
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000189254
    Salzmann, P. [s.n.], Bahia K000189253
    Gardner, G. [1203], Pernambuco K000189252
    Barker, W.R. [66562], Papua New Guinea K000480617
    Beckett, J.J. [535], Somalia K000480649
    Savatier, L. [s.n.] K000595187
    Furuse, M. [2887], Japan K000480638
    Andersen, J.S. [474], Pakistan K000480625
    Brochado, A.L. [190], Bahia K000189249
    Peterson, P.M. [14417], Australia K000480646
    Florence, J. [5238], French Polynesia K000480636
    Boyland, D.E. [590], Australia K000480644
    Hill, E.J. [s.n.], Indiana K000881807
    Vartak, V.D. [21287], India K000480627
    Donde, V.P. [45], India K000480626
    [Kee], H.S.M. [6087], Myanmar K000480631
    Harvey, M.J. [44], Sierra Leone K000480633
    El Bakry, A. [17], Egypt K000480641
    Marr, M. [738], USA K000480654
    Aug 1, 1903 Heller, A.A. [585], Puerto Rico Eleocharis capitata K000480656
    May 1, 1887 Wright, C. [1961], New Mexico Eleocharis capitata K000881809
    Boden-Kloss, C. [s.n.], Malaysia Eleocharis capitata K000480622
    Marie-Victorin, J.L. [25773], Canada Eleocharis capitata K000480653
    Corner, E.J.H. [25804], Malaysia Eleocharis caribaea K000480621

    First published in Syst. Veg., ed. 15 bis 2: 150 (1817)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Velayos, M., Aedo, C., Cabezas, F., de la Estrella, M., Barberá, P. & Fero, M. (eds.) (2014). Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial 11: 1-416. Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, Real jardín botánico, Madrid.
    • de Oliveira Ribeiro, A.R. & al. (2014). Cyperaceae do rio Apodi-Mossoró, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Hoehnea 41: 149-171.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Lye, K.A. & Thery, P. (2012). Flore du Gabon 44: 1-230. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Rothrock, P.E. (2009). Sedges of Indiana and adjacent states: the non-Carex species: 1-271. Indiana Academy of Sciences.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Govaerts, R. & Simpson, D.A. (2007). World Checklist of Cyperaceae. Sedges: 1-765. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2006). A contribution to the flora of Wadi Abdur (Dhofar, Soutern Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 61: 253-260.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Cabezas, F., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2004). Checklist of the Cyperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko, Río Muni) Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 3-26.
    • Govaerts, R. (2004). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-54382. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S., & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: i-xxviii, 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Espejo Serna, A. & López-Ferrari, A.R. (1997). Las Monocotiledóneas Mexicanas una Sinopsis Florística 5: 1-98. Consejo Nacional de la Flora de México, México D.F.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 364 (1967).
    • Svenson in Rhodora 41: 50 (1939)
    • Svenson in Rhodora 34: 259, t. 463, fig. 1 (1932)
    • Syst. Veg. 2: 150 (1817), emend.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • de Oliveira Ribeiro, A.R. & al. (2014). Cyperaceae do rio Apodi-Mossoró, estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Hoehnea 41: 149-171.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Hoenselaar, K., Verdcourt, B. & Beentje, H. (2010). Cyperaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-466.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2006). A contribution to the flora of Wadi Abdur (Dhofar, Soutern Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 61: 253-260.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Cabezas, F., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2004). Checklist of the Cyperaceae of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko, Río Muni) Belgian Journal of Botany 137: 3-26.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Edwards, S., Demissew, S., & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1997). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 6: i-xxviii, 1-586. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Sachet, M.-H. (1962). Flora and vegetation of Clipperton island Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 31: 249-307.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 6: 405, fig. 212.21 (1997).
    • Sedges & Rushes E. Afr.: 70, fig. 101 (1983)
    • Rhodora 41: 50 (1939)
    • Syst. Veg. 2: 150 (1817)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0