1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Festuca Tourn. ex L.
      1. Festuca brachyphylla Schult. & Schult.f.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic to N. & W. Central U.S.A.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths persistent and investing base of culm; with fibrous dead sheaths. Basal innovations intravaginal. Culms 10-15 cm long. Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length; with 0.5-0.75 of their length closed; with flat margins; glabrous on surface. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform; conduplicate; 0.5-0.7 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade venation comprising 5-7 vascular bundles; with 1-3 inner ridges; with 5 subepidermal sclerenchyma strands; with subepidermal sclerenchyma free from veins; without layer of subepidermal sclerenchyma masking vein striation. Leaf-blade surface smooth; glabrous, or puberulous; sparsely hairy.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; lanceolate; dense; 2-4 cm long. Primary panicle branches simple; bearing 1-2 fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5.5-7.3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.
    Fertile
    Spikelets with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5.5-7.3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes obscured by lemmas.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; chartaceous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 3.2-4.1 mm long; 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; 3.7-5.5 mm long; chartaceous; glaucous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 1.2-2 mm long overall. Palea 2 -veined. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.7-1.3 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid. Hilum linear. Disseminule comprising a caryopsis and palea.
    Vegetative Multiplication
    Vegetative proliferation absent, or occurs.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern and eastern. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, China, and Mongolia. North America: Subarctic.
    Reference
    Poeae. Fl Eur 1995.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped densely. Rhizomes absent. Culms erect; 10-37 cm long. Culm-internodes smooth; distally glabrous. Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length; with 0.5 of their length closed; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.2-0.5 mm long. Collar glabrous. Leaf-blades conduplicate; 0.4-0.7(-1) mm wide; 1-5 cm long at summit of culm. Leaf-blade venation comprising 5-7 vascular bundles; with 1-5 inner ridges; with sclerenchyma strands below veins; with 5-7 subepidermal sclerenchyma strands; with subepidermal sclerenchyma free from veins. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough adaxially.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted; linear; (1.5-)2-5 cm long. Primary panicle branches appressed; 1-2 -nate; bearing 2-4 fertile spikelets on each lower branch. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-4(-5) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 4-4.5(-6) mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-4(-5) fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 4-4.5(-6) mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 1.5-2 mm long; 0.66 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous; rough above. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate, or elliptic; (2-)2.2-2.7 mm long; 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous; rough above. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; (2.5-)3-3.5(-4) mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth, or scabrous; rough above. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0.7-2.1 mm long overall. Palea 2 -veined. Palea surface smooth, or scabrous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.8-1.3 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum linear.
    Distribution
    North America: Subarctic.
    Reference
    Poeae. Fl N Amer 2007.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Altay, Arizona, British Columbia, California, China North-Central, Chita, Colorado, Greenland, Idaho, Irkutsk, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Labrador, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Minnesota, Mongolia, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North European Russi, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Oregon, Qinghai, Québec, Saskatchewan, Svalbard, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Tuva, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Siberia, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yukon

    Festuca brachyphylla Schult. & Schult.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Parry, W.E. [s.n.], Nunavut K000912931

    First published in Mant. 3: 646 (1827)

    Accepted by

    • Greuter, W. & von Raab-Straube, E. (eds.) (2011). Euro+Med Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 41: 128-138.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Greuter, W. & von Raab-Straube, E. (eds.) (2011). Euro+Med Notulae, 5 Willdenowia 41: 128-138.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0