1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Digitaria Haller
      1. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms decumbent; 20-100 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 3-25 cm long; 3-10 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2-12; digitate; unilateral; 6-22 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 0-5 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; angular; glabrous on surface, or with scattered hairs; scabrous on margins. Spikelet packing contiguous; 0.3 their length apart. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster; all alike, or heteromorphic (as to indumentum).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; (2-)2.5-3.3(-3.7) mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; acute; (2-)2.5-3.3(-3.7) mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes two; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.2-0.4 mm long; 0.1 length of spikelet. Upper glume lanceolate; (0.5-)0.6-0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent; hairy between veins. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7 -veined; with equidistant veins, or with unevenly spaced veins; puberulous, or pubescent, or setose, or villous; hairy between veins; eciliate on margins, or ciliate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2-3.7 mm long; cartilaginous; much thinner on margins; grey, or dark brown; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins flat; covering most of palea; ciliate. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTEA.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual, or perennial; short-lived; caespitose. Culms prostrate; slender; 20-50 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Leaf-sheaths glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long. Leaf-blades lanceolate (narrowly); 3-8 cm long; 2-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous; hairless except near base. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 3-9; digitate; erect; unilateral; 4-8 cm long. Rhachis narrowly winged; flattened; 0.5 mm wide; glabrous on surface; scaberulous on margins. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in the cluster.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 2.2-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 2.2-2.8 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes two; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.2 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface pilose; hairy between veins. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 1.1 length of fertile lemma; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7 -veined; with unevenly spaced veins; pilose; hairy between veins; pubescent on margins; acute. Fertile lemma elliptic; cartilaginous; much thinner on margins; yellow to light green to grey; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins flat; covering most of palea. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: Indo-China.
    Reference
    Paniceae. Fl China 2000.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Algeria, Angola, Ascension, Assam, Azores, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Austria, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, Kansas, Kermadec Is., Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Marcus I., Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Nauru, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Phoenix Is., Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Sardegna, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Suriname, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Virginia, Wake I., Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Windward Is.

    Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2002 Clayton, W.D. [4943], Brazil K001075584
    Jun 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [1687], Cameroon K000107849
    Mar 28, 2000 Gardner [147], Brazil K001075564
    Feb 28, 2000 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075566
    Feb 28, 2000 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075567
    Feb 28, 2000 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001075604
    Feb 3, 2000 Eiten, G. [6250], Brazil K001075571
    May 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1391], Brazil K001075549
    Apr 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1204], Brazil K001075550
    Jan 1, 1990 Schimper [1616], Ethiopia K000281478 Unknown type material
    Oct 1, 1977 Wight, R. [3032], India K000245359 lectotype
    Apr 1, 1970 Carr, C.E. [11108] K000290284 isotype
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [2964], Thailand K000621155
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [6624], Thailand K000621156
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [6718], Thailand K000621157
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [10198], Thailand K000621158
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [10198], Thailand K000621159
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [16050], Thailand K000621160
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [19622], Thailand K000621161
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [21340], Thailand K000621162
    Apr 1, 1970 Kerr, A.F.G. [21340], Thailand K000621163
    Apr 1, 1970 Larsen, K. [8319], Thailand K000688294
    Apr 1, 1970 Larsen, K. [10002], Thailand K000688295
    Apr 1, 1970 Larsen, K. [10510], Thailand K000688296
    Apr 1, 1970 Smitinand, T. [5954], Thailand K000688290
    Apr 1, 1970 Smitinand, T. [5955], Thailand K000688291
    Apr 1, 1970 Smitinand, T. [5976], Thailand K000688292
    Apr 1, 1970 Smitinand, T. [5976], Thailand K000688293
    Apr 1, 1970 Put [6], Thailand K000621164
    Harley, R.M. [17590], Bahia K000004527
    Harley, R.M. [17132], Bahia K000004529
    Harley, R.M. [17044], Bahia K000004528
    Hinton, G.B. [4691], México State K000476274
    Hinton, G.B. [2260], México State K000476275
    Hinton, G.B. [1628a], México State K000476273
    Ridley, H.N. [0], Fernando de Noronha K000004554
    Clayton, W.D. [4386], Brazil K001075542
    Clayton, W.D. [4245], Brazil K001075558
    Clayton, W.D. [4345], Brazil K001075559
    Clayton, W.D. [4271], Brazil K001075560
    Clayton, W.D. [4148], Brazil K001075578
    Clayton, W.D. [4099], Brazil K001075579
    Clayton, W.D. [4077], Brazil K001075580
    Clayton, W.D. [4646], Brazil K001075581
    Clayton, W.D. [4574], Brazil K001075582
    Hatschbach, G. [24218], Brazil K001075543
    Hatschbach, G. [35112], Brazil K001075548
    Hatschbach, G. [48986], Brazil K001075551
    Hatschbach, G. [12288], Brazil K001075556
    Hatschbach, G. [13793], Brazil K001075557
    Lindeman, J.C. [7024], Brazil K001075552
    Lindeman, J.C. [459], Brazil K001075562
    van Beusekom, C.F. [3247], Thailand K000688289
    Schimper [2162], Ethiopia K000281479
    Sellow [s.n.], Bahia K000004520 isotype
    Irwin, H.S. [11310], Brazil K001075585
    Eiten, G. [2658], Brazil K001075574
    Eiten, G. [6033], Brazil K001075577
    Castellanos, A. [24538], Brazil K001075569
    Castellanos, A. [25642], Brazil K001075572
    Castellanos, A. [24870], Brazil K001075586
    Silva, N.T. [1048], Brazil K001075544
    Smith, L.B. [13250], Brazil K001075587
    Smith, L.B. [13079], Brazil K001075588
    Smith, L.B. [13113], Brazil K001075589
    Kotschy [429], Sudan K000281477 lectotype
    Mueller, F. [69], Brazil K001075539
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001075573
    Hoehne, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001075583
    Ferreira, S. [35], Brazil K001075568
    Ferreira, S. [111], Brazil K001075570
    Prance, G.T. [2549], Brazil K001075545
    Imaguire, N. [73], Brazil K001075561
    Rambo, B. [40979], Brazil K001075537
    Carauta, J.P.P. [791], Brazil K001075575
    Carauta, J.P.P. [791], Brazil K001075576
    Dombrowski, L.T. [1409], Brazil K001075534
    Dombrowski, L.T. [2408], Brazil K001075535
    Regnell, A.F. [III1350], Brazil K001075540
    Glaziou, A. [1244], Brazil K001075553
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245362 Unknown type material
    Gardner [147], Brazil K001075565
    Bommer, D.F.R. [57], Brazil K001075536
    Spruce [1203], Brazil K001075538
    Burchell [3452], Brazil K001075554
    Burchell [8663-2], Brazil K001075555
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001075541
    Jan 1, 1904 Henry, A [1031], Taiwan Digitaria henryi K000885985 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8682], Nepal Panicum ciliare K001131210
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8682], India Panicum ciliare K001131211
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8682] Panicum ciliare K001131213
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8682] Panicum ciliare K001131208
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8682] Panicum ciliare K001131209
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8682] Panicum ciliare K001131212

    First published in Descr. Gramin.: 27 (1802)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Boonsuk, B., Chantaranothai, P. & Hodkinson, T.R. (2016). A taxonomic revision of the genus Digitaria (Panicoideae: Poaceae) in mainland Southeast Asia Phytotaxa 246: 248-280.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M., Márquez García, F. & Blanco Salas, J. (2014). 084.- Digitaria ciliaris Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 8: 86-91.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Sánchez-Ken, J.G. (2012). A synopsis of Digitaria (Paniceae, Panicoideae, Poaceae) in Mexico, including the new species Digitaria michoacensis Acta Botanica Mexicana 101: 127-149. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
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    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
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    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
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    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
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    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
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    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
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    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
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    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
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    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
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    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
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    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M., Márquez García, F. & Blanco Salas, J. (2014). 084.- Digitaria ciliaris Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 8: 86-91.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
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    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0