1. Family: Begoniaceae C.Agardh
    1. Genus: Begonia L.
      1. Begonia sutherlandii Hook.f.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Begoniaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Plants perennial, 10–35 cm. tall.
    Stem
    Stems glabrous or sparsely hairy, sparingly branched, arising from a large ellipsoid tuber.
    Leaves
    Leaves sparsely to fairly densely hairy, petiolate; laminae 2·5–14 cm. long, ovate to lanceolate in outline, the margin often very shallowly lobed, always strongly serrated; petioles 0·7–8 cm. long; stipules 4–10 mm. long, ovate-oblong, fimbriate; bulbils sometimes present in leaf-axils.
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal and axillary dichasial cymes with 1–2 dichasia; peduncles 2–6 cm. long; primary dichasial branches 1·3–2·5 cm. long. Female flowers: tepals 5, coloured as in the male; outer ones 6–10 mm. long, elliptic or ovate, inner ones narrower; styles divided to 1/2–2/3 their length, the branches spirally twisted; ovary 4·5–9 × 2–5 mm., oblong, 3-winged; placentae entire. Male flowers: tepals 2 + 2, orange or rarely yellow; outer pair 7–12 × 6–10 mm., suborbicular to ovate or elliptic; inner pair narrower; filaments c. 1·5 mm. long.
    Bracts
    Bracts 4–12 mm. long, obovate, green, pink or brown, persistent and conspicuous.
    Male
    Male flowers: tepals 2 + 2, orange or rarely yellow; outer pair 7–12 × 6–10 mm., suborbicular to ovate or elliptic; inner pair narrower; filaments c. 1·5 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers: tepals 5, coloured as in the male; outer ones 6–10 mm. long, elliptic or ovate, inner ones narrower; styles divided to 1/2–2/3 their length, the branches spirally twisted; ovary 4·5–9 × 2–5 mm., oblong, 3-winged; placentae entire.
    Fruits
    Capsule 6–28 × 3–7 mm. excluding wings, ellipsoid or cylindrical; wings 6–14 mm. wide, subequal, triangular, the upper edge horizontal or at an acute or obtuse angle to the fruit axis; wing sometimes extending beyond capsule above and below.
    [FTEA]

    Begoniaceae, Vanessa Plana, Martin J.S. Sands & Henk J. Beentje. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Type
    Type: specimen cultivated in UK, York, June 1867, Backhouse s.n. (not found).
    Habit
    Perennial herb 10–50 cm high, epiphytic or terrestrial; tuber depressed-ellipsoid, to 6 cm in diameter, red or orange inside; stem often red, sparsely branched, fleshy, glabrous or sparsely hairy. Stipules pink, asymmetrically ovate-oblong, 3–15 mm long, irregularly ciliate-dentate or fimbriate, acute to acuminate.
    Leaves
    Leaves green above, the margin and veins red, reddish beneath, ovate to lanceolate in outline, asymmetric, 2.5–20 cm long, 1.5–14.5 cm wide, one side 1.5–2 times wider than the other and with a basal lobe often 1/4 to 1/6 of the total lamina length, base cordate and very unequal, margin often shallowly lobed, always serrate, apex attenuate, sparsely to densely hairy; venation palmate-pinnate; bulbils sometimes present in leaf-axils; petiole red, 1–10 cm long, with or without a ring of hairs at the junction with the lamina.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary bisexual cymes with 1–2 dichasia; peduncle red, 2–6 cm long; bracts persistent and conspicuous, green or pink, obovate, 2.5–12 mm long, acute; pedicels 7–40 mm long. Male flowers: tepals 4, orange or rarely yellow, the outer suborbicular, ovate or elliptic, 7–18 × 6–15 mm, the inner elliptic to spatulate, 6–15 × 4.5–8(–11) mm; stamens 40–60, filaments 0.5–3 mm long; anthers oblong, 0.7–1.8 mm long. Female flowers: tepals 5, orange or yellow, the outer elliptic or ovate, 6–17 mm long, 5–11 mm wide, the innermost elliptic, to 14.5 × 6.2 mm; ovary ellipsoid, 4.5–9 × 2–5 mm, 3-locular, 3-winged; placentation axile, placentas undivided; styles three, caducous, divided about halfway, the branches twisted, with a continuous undulating stigmatic band.
    Fruits
    Fruit an ellipsoid or cylindrical capsule, 6–28 mm long, 3–7 mm in diameter excluding the wings; wings subequal, triangular, 6–14 mm wide, sometimes extending distally beyond the capsule; dehiscence along the junction with the wing.
    Figures
    Fig. 3, p. 16.
    Ecology
    On tree-trunks or horizontal branches, on wet rock, occasionally terrestrial in moist forest or near streams or waterfalls; 950–2200(–2800) m.
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC); widespread but uncommon in Flora area.
    Note
    Irmscher described a considerable number of sub-specific taxa, exhibiting only minor differences. Two subspecies upheld in F.Z. are a good example: subsp. sutherlandii: leaves narrowly ovate, 2.5–7 cm long, the margin coarsely serrate; petiole 0.7–2.5 cm long; and subsp. latior (Irmsch.) Kupicha: leaves oblong, 5–14 cm long, broadest at the middle, the margin finely serrate; petiole 1–8 cm long. There are numerous intermediates, for example with large leaves and coarsely dentate margins, or with small leaves with rather long petioles. Accordingly, for this Flora, a broader approach is taken and B. sutherlandii is seen as a single variable taxon. The type was said by Irmscher to be from South Africa, Natal, without further locality, Dec. 1861, Sutherland s.n. (K, holo.); but the protologue clearly says that the description has been drawn up from a specimen cultivated in UK, York, June 1867, Backhouse s.n. (not found).
    Distribution
    Range: Congo-Kinshasa, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Africa Flora districts: T4 T6 T7 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Begonia sutherlandii Hook.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hepper, F.N. [5387], Tanzania 34362.000
    Wilms, F. [1268], South Africa K000242730
    Jan 1, 1961 Button [8], South Africa Begonia buttonii K000407086 holotype
    Nov 1, 1957 Marais, W. [31] Begonia flava K000242755
    Jan 1, 1975 Richards, H.M. [3699], Zimbabwe Begonia sutherlandii subsp. latior K000242754
    Jan 1, 1975 Richards, H.M. [3699], Zimbabwe Begonia sutherlandii subsp. latior K000242753 holotype
    Jan 1, 1960 Wood, J.M. [1081], South Africa Begonia dissecta K000242729 holotype

    First published in Bot. Mag. 94: t. 5689 (1868)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Cribb & Leedal, Mountain Fl. S Tanzania: 55, pl. 8b (1982).
    • F.Z. 4: 503 (1978)
    • F.C.B., Begoniaceae: 50 (1969)
    • E.J. 81: 162 (1961)
    • Bot. Mag. 94: t. 5689 (1868)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/