1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sorghum Moench
      1. Sorghum × drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) Millsp. & Chase

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to Sudan.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; culms solitary. Culms erect; 150-200 cm long; 3-6 mm diam. Leaves cauline. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades 15-20 cm long; 8-12 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; ovate, or pyramidal; 15-30 cm long; 8-15 cm wide. Primary panicle branches ascending, or spreading; 2-5 -nate; 5-15 cm long. Panicle branches flexuous; scaberulous. Racemes 1.5-2.5 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 2-5 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis tough; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs 0.5-0.75 mm long. Rhachis internodes filiform; 2.5-4 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; flattened; 2-3.5 mm long; ciliate; with 0.5-0.75 mm long hairs.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5.5-8 mm long; shorter than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 9-11 -veined; glabrous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; subacute; 6-7.5 mm long; 2-3 mm wide; persistent on plant. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5.5-8 mm long; shorter than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 9-11 -veined; glabrous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; subacute; 6-7.5 mm long; 2-3 mm wide; persistent on plant. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; yellow, or light brown; without keels; keel-less except near apex; 11-15 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Lower glume surface glabrous, or puberulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels; keel-less except near apex; 7 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 5-6.5 mm long; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 3.5-4.5 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; with lobes 0.5-1 mm long; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-16 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; oblong; fleshy; ciliate; hairy across the apex. Anthers 3; 4 mm long. Stigmas 2; laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid, or obovoid; dorsally compressed; 3.5-4.5 mm long. Hilum punctiform. Endosperm farinose.
    Distribution
    Europe: central, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and Mongolia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: north-central USA, southwest USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. =Sorghum sudanense. Snowden 1994.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chad, Egypt, Mali, Niger, Sudan

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Arizona, Austria, Botswana, Brazil Southeast, California, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., El Salvador, Florida, Free State, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iraq, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kirgizstan, Krym, Louisiana, Madagascar, Manchuria, Marianas, Masachusettes, Mexico Southeast, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Pitcairn Is., Québec, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Society Is., South Carolina, South European Russi, Tadzhikistan, Tennessee, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Virginia, Xinjiang, Yemen

    Sorghum × drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) Millsp. & Chase appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 3: 21 (1903)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
    • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0