1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Amaranthus L.
      1. Amaranthus graecizans L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Iran and Angola.

    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual herb, branched from the base and usually also above, erect, decumbent or prostrate, mostly up to c. 45 cm. (rarely to 70 cm. high).
    Stem
    Stem slender to stout, angular, glabrous or thinly to moderately furnished with short to long, often crisped multicellular hairs which increase upwards, especially in the inflorescence.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous or sometimes sparingly furnished on the lower surface of the principal veins with very short, gland-like hairs, long-petiolate (petiole from 3–45 mm. long, sometimes longer than the lamina), lamina broadly ovate or rhomboid-ovate to narrowly linear-lanceolate, 4–55 × 2–30 mm., acute to obtuse or obscurely retuse at the mucronulate apex, cuneate to long-attenuate at the base.
    Flowers
    Flowers all in axillary cymose clusters, male and female intermixed, male commonest in the upper cymes.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles narrowly lanceolate-oblong, pale-membranous, acuminate and with a pale or reddish arista formed by the excurrent green midrib, bracteoles subequalling or usually shorter than the perianth.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments 3, all 1.5–2 mm. long; those of the male flowers lanceolate-oblong, cuspidate, pale membranous with a narrow green midrib excurrent in a short, pale arista; those of the female flowers lanceolate-oblong to linear-oblong, gradually to abruptly narrowed to the mucro, the midrib often bordered by a green vitta above and apparently thickened, the margins pale whitish to greenish.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 3, slender, usually pale, flexuose, c.0.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule subglobose to shortly ovoid, 2–2.25 mm. usually strongly wrinkled throughout with a very short, smooth beak, exceeding the perianth, circumcissile or sometimes not, even on the same plant.
    Seeds
    Seeds shining, compressed, black, 1–1.25 mm. across, faintly reticulate especially towards the margin.
    [FWTA]

    Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    A variable weed, up to 2 ft. high.
    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual herb, branched from the base and usually also above, erect, decumbent or prostrate, mostly up to 45(–70) cm.
    Stem
    Stem slender to stout, angular, glabrous or thinly to moderately furnished with short to long, often crisped multicellular hairs which increase upwards, especially in the inflorescence.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous or sometimes sparingly furnished on the lower surface of the principal veins with very short gland-like hairs, long-petiolate (petiole from 3–5 mm., sometimes longer than the lamina); lamina broadly ovate or rhomboid-ovate to narrowly linear-lanceolate, 4–55 × 2–30 mm., acute to obtuse or obscurely retuse at the mucronate tip, cuneate to long-attenuate at the base.
    Flowers
    Flowers all in axillary cymose clusters, ♂ and ♀ intermixed, ♂ commonest in the upper cymes.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles narrowly lanceolate-oblong, pale and membranous, acuminate and with a pale or reddish arista formed by the excurrent green midrib; bracteoles subequalling or usually shorter than the perianth.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 3, all 1.5–2 mm.; ♂ lanceolate-oblong, cuspidate, pale and membranous, with a narrow green midrib excurrent in a short pale arista; ♀ lanceolate-oblong to linear-oblong, gradually to abruptly narrowed to the mucro, the midrib often bordered by a green vitta above and apparently thickened, the margins pale whitish to greenish.
    Stigma
    Stigmas 3, slender, usually pale, flexuous, ± 0.5 mm.
    Fruits
    Capsule subglobose to shortly ovoid, 2–2.25 mm., usually strongly wrinkled throughout with a very short smooth beak, exceeding the perianth, circumscissile or sometimes not, even on the same plant.
    Seeds
    Seeds shining, compressed, black, 1–1.25 mm., faintly reticulate especially towards the margin.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Tunisia

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Azores, Baleares, Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kenya, Kriti, Libya, Madeira, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Palestine, Portugal, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Austria, Belgium, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Germany, Hungary, Krym, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northwest European R, Romania, Sardegna, South Australia, Switzerland, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Sahara

    Amaranthus graecizans L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Kotschy [82], Sudan K000243572 syntype
    Kotschy [48], Sudan K000243574 isolectotype
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 3], Great Britain K000914064
    Migeod, F. W. H. [147], Cameroon K000025559

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 990 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
    • Iamonico, D. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy Phytotaxa 199: 1-84.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 528.
    • Sp. Pl. 990 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Aver'ianov, L.V. & al. (2006). Illyustrirovannyi opredelitel' rastenii Leningradskoi oblasti: 1-799. Nauka, Moskva.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 133 (1974).
    • Cavaco in Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris, sér. B, 13: 52 (1962).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 117 (1950).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 990 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0