Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Ontario to W. South America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.
Amaranthus hybridus

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
bejuco reuma, bledo, bledo chico, bleo, cadillo, ortiga morada

[FTEA]

Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, erect or less commonly ascending, up to ± 2(–3) m. in cultivated forms, but much less in spontaneous plants, not infrequently reddish tinted throughout.
Morphology Stem
Stems stout, branched, angular, glabrous or thinly to moderately furnished with short or long multicellular hairs (increasingly so above, especially in the inflorescence).
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the lower margins and underside of the primary nervation, long-petiolate (petioles up to 15 cm. but even then scarcely exceeding the lamina); lamina broadly lanceolate to rhomboid or ovate, 3–19(–30) × 1.5–8(–12) cm., gradually narrowed to the blunt to subacute mucronulate tip, attenuate or shortly cuneate into the petiole below.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in yellowish, green, reddish or purple axillary and terminal spikes formed of cymose clusters, which are increasingly closely approximate upwards, the terminal inflorescence varying from a single spike to a broad much-branched panicle up to ± 45 × 25 cm., the ultimate spike not infrequently nodding; ♂ and ♀ flowers intermixed throughout the spikes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to deltoid-lanceolate, pale and membranous, acuminate and with along pale to reddish-tipped erect arista formed by the stout excurrent yellow or greenish midrib; bracteoles subequalling to much exceeding the perianth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth-segments 5, lanceolate or oblong, 1.5–3.5 mm., acute-aristate or the inner in ♀ sometimes blunt, only the midrib at most greenish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas (2–)3, erect, flexuose or recurved, ± 0.75–1.25 mm.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule subglobose to ovoid to ovoid-urceolate, 2–3 mm., circumscissile, with a moderately distinct to obsolete beak, lid smooth, longitudinally sulcate or sometimes rugulose below the neck.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed black and shining, or pale, compressed, 0.75–1.25 mm., almost smooth centrally, faintly reticulate around the margins.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Erect or occasionally ascending annual, up to 3 m in some cultivated forms but much less in the wild, not infrequently ± reddish-tinted in part or throughout
Morphology Stem
Stems stout, simple to much-branched, glabrous or increasingly furnished upwards with long multicellular hairs
Morphology Leaves
Broadly lanceolate to rhomboid or ovate blade, obtuse to subacute, glabrous or thinly pilose on the lower surface of the margins and primary venation
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petioles up to 15 cm long but scarcely longer than the 3–19(–30) x 1.5–8(–12) cm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in axillary and terminal “spikes” of cymose clusters which become increasingly congested above, the terminal inflorescence of a single spike or a broad, much-branched panicle up to c. 45 x 25 cm with the terminal spike often somewhat nodding, male and female flowers intermixed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Tepal
Tepals of female flowers 5, 1.5–3.5 mm, lanceolate-oblong, acute-aristate to blunt and mucronulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas (2–)3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule subglobose to ovoid-urceolate, 2–3 mm with a small and smooth to inflated or wrinkled beak, circumscissile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds faintly reticulate, lenticular.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 400 - 2700 m.; Andes, Orinoquia, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Ecology
Alt. 400 - 2700 m.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.
Distribution
Native from Colombia.

[FZ]

Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, erect or less commonly ascending, up to 2 (3) m. in cultivated forms but less in wild populations, not infrequently reddish-tinted along the leaf venation or throughout.
Morphology Stem
Stems mostly stout, simple or almost so to considerably branched, angular, glabrous to thinly or moderately furnished with short or occasionally longer multicellular hairs (increasingly so above, especially in the inflorescences).
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the lower margins and underside of the primary venation, long-petiolate (petioles up to 15 cm. long but even then scarcely exceeding the lamina), lamina broadly lanceolate to rhomboid or ovate, 3–19 (30) × 1.5–8 (12) cm., gradually narrowed to the blunt to subacute mucronulate tip, attenuate to shortly cuneate into the petiole below.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers in yellowish, green, reddish or purple axillary and terminal spikes formed of cymose clusters which are increasingly closely approximate upwards, the terminal inflorescence varying from a single spike to a broad, much-branched panicle up to c.45 × 25 cm., in length and breadth, the ultimate spike not infrequently more or less nodding; male and female flowers intermixed throughout the spikes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to deltoid-lanceolate, pale-membranous, acuminate, with a long, pale to reddish-tipped straight arista formed by the stout, excurrent, yellow to greenish midrib; bracteoles sub-equalling to considerably exceeding the perianth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth segments 5, 1.5–2.5 mm. long and paler in the male, 1.5–3.5 mm. long in the female, lanceolate to oblong, shortly aristate or mucronate, acute or the inner segments of the female sometimes blunt, usually only the midrib greenish.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigmas (2) 3, erect to flexuose or recurved, 0.5–1.25 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule subglobose to ovoid or ovoid-urceolate, c. 2–3 mm. long, circumcissile, with a moderately distinct to obsolete beak, the style-bases not to considerably dilated, the lid smooth to longitudinally striate or rugulose.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed black and shining (occasionally pale and dull), compressed, roundish, 0.75–1.25 mm. in diam., almost smooth centrally and faintly reticulate around the margins.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Delaware, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Honduras, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Ontario, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Rhode I., South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia

Introduced into:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Arizona, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hawaii, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Manitoba, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nigeria, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Québec, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, South Australia, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

English
Cock's comb, Common pigweed, Hell's curse, Panicled amaranth, Prince's feather, Red amaranth

Amaranthus hybridus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2008 Powell [X.I.1365] K000611689
Jan 1, 1964 s.coll. [s.n.] K000195018
Bot. Dept. n.u.c. [101], South Africa K000243575 holotype
Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000195019
Rambo, B. [46364], Brazil K001207055
Irwin, H.S. [10991], Brazil K001207057
Roxburgh, W. [s.n.] K000195017
Hoehne, F.C. [s.n.], Brazil K001207054
Kuhlmann, M. [715], Brazil K001207056
Thomson, T. [s.n.], India K000195023
Eiten, G. [5670a], Brazil K001207053

First published in Sp. Pl.: 990 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Minnesota Flora. An illustrated guide to the vascular plants of Minnesota ed. 2: 1-776. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmandson, J.R. (eds.) (2016). Flora of Iraq 5(1): 1-284. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Iamonico, D. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy Phytotaxa 199: 1-84.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Kravchenko, A.V., Timofeeva, V.V., Rudkocskaya, O.A. & Fadeeva, M.A. (2008). Vascular plant species new and rare to Karelia Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 776-788.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Sánchez-del Pino, I., Espadas, C. & Pool, R. (2013). Taxonomy and richness of nine genera of Amaranthaceae s.s. (Caryophyllales) in the Yucatan peninsula biotic province Phytotaxa 107: 1-74.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
  • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Zumaya-Mendoza, S. & Sánchez-del Pino, I. (2015). Flora del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán 133: 1-63. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónomica de México.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Aellen, P. (1972). Flora Iranica 91: 1-19. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
  • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Chadde, S.W. (2019). Minnesota Flora. An illustrated guide to the vascular plants of Minnesota ed. 2: 1-776. Steve W. Chadde.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 1-508. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmandson, J.R. (eds.) (2016). Flora of Iraq 5(1): 1-284. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2001). Flora Nordica 2: 1-430. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Kravchenko, A.V., Timofeeva, V.V., Rudkocskaya, O.A. & Fadeeva, M.A. (2008). Vascular plant species new and rare to Karelia Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 776-788.
  • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by C. C. Townsend [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 133 (1974).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 116 (1950).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 990 (1753).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0