1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Amaranthus L.
      1. Amaranthus hybridus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Ontario to W. South America.

    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual herb, erect or less commonly ascending, up to ± 2(–3) m. in cultivated forms, but much less in spontaneous plants, not infrequently reddish tinted throughout.
    Stem
    Stems stout, branched, angular, glabrous or thinly to moderately furnished with short or long multicellular hairs (increasingly so above, especially in the inflorescence).
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the lower margins and underside of the primary nervation, long-petiolate (petioles up to 15 cm. but even then scarcely exceeding the lamina); lamina broadly lanceolate to rhomboid or ovate, 3–19(–30) × 1.5–8(–12) cm., gradually narrowed to the blunt to subacute mucronulate tip, attenuate or shortly cuneate into the petiole below.
    Flowers
    Flowers in yellowish, green, reddish or purple axillary and terminal spikes formed of cymose clusters, which are increasingly closely approximate upwards, the terminal inflorescence varying from a single spike to a broad much-branched panicle up to ± 45 × 25 cm., the ultimate spike not infrequently nodding; ♂ and ♀ flowers intermixed throughout the spikes.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to deltoid-lanceolate, pale and membranous, acuminate and with along pale to reddish-tipped erect arista formed by the stout excurrent yellow or greenish midrib; bracteoles subequalling to much exceeding the perianth.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 5, lanceolate or oblong, 1.5–3.5 mm., acute-aristate or the inner in ♀ sometimes blunt, only the midrib at most greenish.
    Stigma
    Stigmas (2–)3, erect, flexuose or recurved, ± 0.75–1.25 mm.
    Fruits
    Capsule subglobose to ovoid to ovoid-urceolate, 2–3 mm., circumscissile, with a moderately distinct to obsolete beak, lid smooth, longitudinally sulcate or sometimes rugulose below the neck.
    Seeds
    Seed black and shining, or pale, compressed, 0.75–1.25 mm., almost smooth centrally, faintly reticulate around the margins.
    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual herb, erect or less commonly ascending, up to 2 (3) m. in cultivated forms but less in wild populations, not infrequently reddish-tinted along the leaf venation or throughout.
    Stem
    Stems mostly stout, simple or almost so to considerably branched, angular, glabrous to thinly or moderately furnished with short or occasionally longer multicellular hairs (increasingly so above, especially in the inflorescences).
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the lower margins and underside of the primary venation, long-petiolate (petioles up to 15 cm. long but even then scarcely exceeding the lamina), lamina broadly lanceolate to rhomboid or ovate, 3–19 (30) × 1.5–8 (12) cm., gradually narrowed to the blunt to subacute mucronulate tip, attenuate to shortly cuneate into the petiole below.
    Flowers
    Flowers in yellowish, green, reddish or purple axillary and terminal spikes formed of cymose clusters which are increasingly closely approximate upwards, the terminal inflorescence varying from a single spike to a broad, much-branched panicle up to c.45 × 25 cm., in length and breadth, the ultimate spike not infrequently more or less nodding; male and female flowers intermixed throughout the spikes.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate to deltoid-lanceolate, pale-membranous, acuminate, with a long, pale to reddish-tipped straight arista formed by the stout, excurrent, yellow to greenish midrib; bracteoles sub-equalling to considerably exceeding the perianth.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments 5, 1.5–2.5 mm. long and paler in the male, 1.5–3.5 mm. long in the female, lanceolate to oblong, shortly aristate or mucronate, acute or the inner segments of the female sometimes blunt, usually only the midrib greenish.
    Stigma
    Stigmas (2) 3, erect to flexuose or recurved, 0.5–1.25 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule subglobose to ovoid or ovoid-urceolate, c. 2–3 mm. long, circumcissile, with a moderately distinct to obsolete beak, the style-bases not to considerably dilated, the lid smooth to longitudinally striate or rugulose.
    Seeds
    Seed black and shining (occasionally pale and dull), compressed, roundish, 0.75–1.25 mm. in diam., almost smooth centrally and faintly reticulate around the margins.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Delaware, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Honduras, Louisiana, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Ontario, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Rhode I., South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia

    Introduced into:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Belgium, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Manitoba, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nigeria, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Queensland, Québec, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, South Australia, South Dakota, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tanzania, Togo, Tristan da Cunha, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Victoria, Vietnam, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Cock's comb, Common pigweed, Hell's curse, Panicled amaranth, Prince's feather, Red amaranth

    Amaranthus hybridus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1964 s.coll. [s.n.] K000195018
    Thomson, T. [s.n.], India K000195023
    Irwin, H.S. [10991], Brazil K001207057
    Eiten, G. [5670a], Brazil K001207053
    Kuhlmann, M. [715], Brazil K001207056
    Bot. Dept. n.u.c. [101], South Africa K000243575 holotype
    Rambo, B. [46364], Brazil K001207055
    Roxburgh, W. [s.n.] K000195017
    Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000195019
    Hoehne, F.C. [s.n.], Brazil K001207054
    Philcox, D. [3794], Brazil Amaranthus chlorostachys K001207036
    Philcox, D. [3795], Brazil Amaranthus chlorostachys K001207037

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 990 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
    • Zumaya-Mendoza, S. & Sánchez-del Pino, I. (2015). Flora del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán 133: 1-63. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónomica de México.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Iamonico, D. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy Phytotaxa 199: 1-84.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Sánchez-del Pino, I., Espadas, C. & Pool, R. (2013). Taxonomy and richness of nine genera of Amaranthaceae s.s. (Caryophyllales) in the Yucatan peninsula biotic province Phytotaxa 107: 1-74.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Kravchenko, A.V., Timofeeva, V.V., Rudkocskaya, O.A. & Fadeeva, M.A. (2008). Vascular plant species new and rare to Karelia Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 776-788.
    • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Kravchenko, A.V., Timofeeva, V.V., Rudkocskaya, O.A. & Fadeeva, M.A. (2008). Vascular plant species new and rare to Karelia Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 776-788.
    • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 133 (1974).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 116 (1950).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 990 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/