1. Family: Piperaceae Giseke
    1. Genus: Peperomia Ruiz & Pav.
      1. Peperomia tetraphylla (G.Forst.) Hook. & Arn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Piperaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Usually epiphytic herb, with tufted creeping glabrous stems, 5–27 cm. long, sometimes forming mats on tree branches, the stolons giving rise to more erect flowering shoots.
    Leaves
    Leaves sometimes reddish beneath, in whorls of (3–)4, elliptic to ± round, obovate or rhombic, 0.6–1.7 cm. long, 0.4–1.3 cm. wide, rounded at the apex, cuneate at the base, fleshy, shiny and glabrous, obscurely 3-nerved; petiole 1–3 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Spikes green or yellowish, (0.5–)1.5–4.5 cm. long; peduncle (0.6–)1–1.5(–3) cm. long; bracts round, 0.6 mm. wide, entire or crenate, usually glabrous.
    Fruits
    Fruit narrowly ellipsoid or ovoid, ± 1 mm. long, partly sunk into the rhachis with an indistinct cupule-like structure at base, and symmetrical style at apex.
    Seeds
    Nuts brownish red, 1–1.2 mm. long, 0.3–0.4 mm. wide.
    Habitat
    On trees in wet highland forests, drier evergreen forests, mist forests, also on fallen logs and in grass by river banks, rocky knolls (whether on trees or rocks not stated) and semi-evergreen bushland; 950–2700(–2800 fide Düll) m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 widespread in Africa from Guinea to Cameroon and São Tomé, Zaire to S. Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia and Socotra, south to Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africapantropical
    [FZ]

    Piperaceae, M.A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 9:2. 1997

    Habit
    Perennial, usually epiphytic herbs with tufted creeping stems 6–20 cm long, sometimes forming mats on tree branches, the stolons giving rise to more erect flowering shoots.
    Stem
    Stems slender, simple or dichotomously branched, rooting at the lower nodes, 4-angled; lower internodes up to 5 cm long, very short towards the apex.
    Petiole
    Petiole subsessile or up to 15–30 mm long.
    Leaves
    Leaves (3)4-whorled, (4)6–15(18) ? (3)4–11(12.5) mm, elliptic, rhomboid, ovate, obovate-elliptic or almost rounded, broadly obtuse to rounded at the apex, rounded or broadly cuneate at the base, glabrous on upper surface, glabrous to subglabrous or puberulous beneath, thick, coriaceous, weakly shining, drying ± greyish-glaucous, longitudinally and ± obscurely 3-nerved.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of solitary, terminal or axillary, green spikes; rhachis (8)12–30(40) mm long, shortly hairy; peduncle (6)10–18(25) mm long, glabrous.
    Pistil
    Ovary ovoid, sunk in alveoli on the rhachis; stigma terminal.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 1 mm long, subcylindrical, with a pseudocupule at the base, covered with viscous glands.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Réunion, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Socotra, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Easter Is.

    Peperomia tetraphylla (G.Forst.) Hook. & Arn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2003 Hill [s.n.], New Zealand K000820358 Unknown type material
    Jun 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [9853], Cameroon K000339641
    Jun 1, 2000 Etuge, M. [4535], Cameroon K000339640
    Jan 1, 1995 Griffith [2502] K000350464
    Jan 1, 1995 Telfair [s.n.], Mauritius K000350463
    May 1, 1993 Forster, J.G.A. [s.n.], Society Is. K000820323 lectotype
    Jun 1, 1989 Beechey, F.W. [s.n.], Hawaiian Is. K000820460 holotype
    Ash [416], Ethiopia 13369.017
    Hepper, F.N. [2852], Cameroon K000180098
    Barclay [s.n.], Hawaiian Is. K000820459
    Breteler, F.J. [239], Cameroon K000180097
    Sellow, F. [s.n.], Brazil West-Central K000820457
    Backhouse, J. [618], New Zealand K000820357
    Dunlap [223], Cameroon K000180100
    Dunlap [5], Cameroon K000180102
    Bauer, F.L. [s.n.], Norfolk Island K000820356
    Macrae, J. [s.n.], Hawaii K000820324
    Berro, M.B. [5753], Uruguay K001089666 holotype
    Timberlake, J. [5099], Mozambique K000613479
    Timberlake, J. [5357], Malawi K000614700
    Cunningham [s.n.] K000820458
    Ule, E. [9018], Ceará Peperomia baturiteana K000324671
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6664], Nepal Piper saxatile K001124444
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 6664], India Piper saxatile K001124445
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6664] Piper saxatile K001124446
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6664], India Piper saxatile K001124447
    Fendler, A. [1183], Venezuela Peperomia reflexa var. coriacea K000324958
    Tweedie [s.n.] Peperomia reflexa var. valantoides K000324959

    First published in Bot. Beechey Voy.: 97 (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2017). Flore du Gabon 50: 1-77. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Mai, P. & al. (2016). Taxonomic revision of Peperomia (Piperaceae) from Uruguay Phytotaxa 244: 125-144.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Monteiro, D. (2013). Piperaceae em um fragmento de floresta atlântica da Serra da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais, Brasil Rodriguésia 64: 379-398.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Zanotti, C.A., Suescún, M.A. & Mathieu, G. (2012). Sinopsis y novedades taxonómicas de Peperomia (Piperaceae) en la Argentina Darwiniana 50: 124-147.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J., Todzia, C.A. & Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A. (2007). 7. Hernandiaceae. 8. Chloranthaceae. 9. Piperaceae Flora of the Guianas, Series A 24: 1-214. The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1996). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Piperaceae: 1-24.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2017). Flore du Gabon 50: 1-77. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Mai, P. & al. (2016). Taxonomic revision of Peperomia (Piperaceae) from Uruguay Phytotaxa 244: 125-144.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Monteiro, D. (2013). Piperaceae em um fragmento de floresta atlântica da Serra da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais, Brasil Rodriguésia 64: 379-398.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Pérez-Farrera, M.Á., Martínez-Camilo, R., Martínez-Meléndez, N., Farrera-Sarmiento, O. & Maza-Villalobos, S. (2012). Listado florístico del Cerro Quetzal (Polígono III) de la reserva de la biosfera El Triunfo, Chiapas, México Botanical Sciences 90: 113-142.
    • Zanotti, C.A., Suescún, M.A. & Mathieu, G. (2012). Sinopsis y novedades taxonómicas de Peperomia (Piperaceae) en la Argentina Darwiniana 50: 124-147.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J., Todzia, C.A. & Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A. (2007). 7. Hernandiaceae. 8. Chloranthaceae. 9. Piperaceae Flora of the Guianas, Series A 24: 1-214. The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1998). Flore des Mascareignes 149-152: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Pope, G.V. (ed.) (1997). Flora Zambesiaca 9(2): 1-64. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1996). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Piperaceae: 1-24.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 47, t. 4 (1994).
    • Steyerm., Fl. Venezuela 2(2), Piperaceae: 251, fig. 32/A4–E4 (1984).
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 1: 285, fig. 60/4 (1978).
    • Düll in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 93: 72, fig. 2 (1973).
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    • Yunck. in Brittonia 14: 188 (1962).
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0