1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Alternanthera Forssk.
      1. Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. & E. Australia, S. Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual or usually perennial herb; in drier situations with slender, more solid stems, prostrate, decumbent or erect, more or less much-branched, to c. 30 cm.; in wetter places ascending or most commonly prostrate with stems c. 0.1–1 m. long, rooting at the nodes, more or less fistular, with numerous lateral branches; when floating very fistular, the stems attaining a metre or more in length and over 1 mm. thick, with long clusters of whitish rootlets at the nodes.
    Stem
    Stem and branches green to pink or purplish, with a narrow line of whitish hairs down each side of the stem and branches (at least when young) and tufts of white hairs in the branch and leaf axils, otherwise glabrous, striate, terete below, more or less tetragonous above.
    Leaves
    Leaves extremely variable in shape and size, linear-lanceolate to oblong, oval, or obovate-spathulate, 1–9 (15) × 0.2–2(3) cm., blunt to shortly acuminate at the apex, cuneate to attenuate at the base, glabrous or thinly pilose, especially on the inferior surface of the midrib; petiole obsolete to c. 5 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences sessile, axillary, solitary or in clusters of up to c. 5, subglobose (slightly elongate in fruit), c. 5 mm. in diam.; bracts scarious, white, deltoid-ovate, mucronate with the excurrent pale midrib, glabrous, c. 0.75–1 mm. long; bracteoles similar, 1–1.5 mm., also persistent.
    Tepal
    Tepals oval-elliptic to lanceolate-ovate, equal, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, acuminate to rather blunt, white to pink-tinged, glabrous, shortly but distinctly mucronate with the stout, excurrent midrib, the margins often obscurely lacerate-denticulate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5 (2 filaments anantherous), at anthesis subequalling the ovary and style, the alternating pseudostaminodes resembling the filaments but usually somewhat shorter.
    Pistil
    Ovary strongly compressed, roundish, style extremely short.
    Fruits
    Fruit glabrous, obcordate or cordate-orbicular, 2–2.5 mm. long, dark at maturity, strongly compressed with the margins each side of the seed not much thicker than the narrow, pale, yellowish keel, slightly longer to slightly shorter than the perianth.
    Seeds
    Seed discoid, c. 0.75–1 mm. in diam., brown, shining, faintly reticulate.
    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual or usually perennial herb; in drier situations with slender more solid stems, prostrate, decumbent or erect, ± much branched, to ± 30 cm.; in wetter places ascending or most commonly prostrate with stems ± 0.1–1 m. long, rooting at the nodes, ± fistular, with numerous lateral branches; when floating very fistular, the stems attaining a metre or more in length and over 1 cm. thick, with long clusters of whitish rootlets at the nodes.
    Stem
    Stem and branches green to pink or purplish, with a narrow line of whitish hairs down each side of the stem and branches (at least when young) and tufts of white hairs in the branch and leaf axils, otherwise glabrous, striate, terete below, ± tetragonous above.
    Leaves
    Leaves extremely variable in shape and size, linear-lanceolate to oblong, oval or obovate-spathulate, 1–9(–15) × 0.2–2 (–3) cm., blunt to shortly acuminate at the apex, cuneate to attenuate at the base, glabrous or thinly pilose, especially on the lower surface of the midrib; petiole obsolete to ± 5 mm.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences sessile, axillary, solitary or in clusters of up to ± 5, subglobose (slightly elongate in fruit), ± 5 mm. in diameter; bracts scarious, white, deltoid-ovate, ± 0.75–1 mm., mucronate with the excurrent pale midrib, glabrous; bracteoles similar, 1–1.5 mm., also persistent.
    Tepal
    Tepals oval-elliptic to lanceolate-ovate, equal, 1.5–2.5 mm., acuminate to rather blunt, white to pink-tinged, glabrous, shortly but distinctly mucronate with the stout excurrent midrib, the margins often obscurely lacerate-denticulate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5 (2 filaments anantherous), at anthesis subequalling the ovary and style, the alternating pseudostaminodes resembling the filaments but usually somewhat shorter.
    Ovary
    Ovary strongly compressed, roundish, style extremely short.
    Fruits
    Fruit glabrous, obcordate or cordate-orbicular, 2–2.5 mm. long, subequalling or slightly shorter than the perianth, strongly compressed, dark brownish with a narrow, pale yellowish, somewhat thickened margin.
    Seeds
    Seed discoid, ± 0.75–1 mm., brown, shining, faintly reticulate.
    Figures
    Fig. 29/11–14.
    Habitat
    Most commonly by or in water, also in damp forests and abandoned cultivation, on many kinds of soil from poor sandy to loam or black cotton; 0–1840 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 very widespread in the tropics and subtropics of both Old and New Worlds

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Cayman Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Jawa, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Solomon Is., Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Algeria, Angola, Arkansas, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Christmas I., Congo, Cook Is., Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Louisiana, Malawi, Mali, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Spain, Sudan, Tanzania, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Wallis-Futuna Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Amaranthus weed

    Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2006 Darbyshire, I. [206], Cameroon K000339699
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001207605
    Parker [s.n.], Guyana K001207610
    Mueller, F. [96], Brazil K001207608
    illegible [250], Australia K000939243 holotype
    Brown, R. [4 HG ?], Australia K000939244 Unknown type material
    Brown, R. [3065], Australia K000939245
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6921], Malaysia K001126224
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126225
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126226
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126227
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6921], Myanmar K001126228
    Aymard, G. [3572], Venezuela K001207612
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126222
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126223
    Lohmann, L.G. [67], Brazil K001207606
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126215
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126216
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126217
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126218
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6921] K001126219
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6921], India K001126220
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6921], India K001126221
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001207604
    s.coll. [90] K001207611
    Burchell [3225], Brazil K001207607
    Burchell [9710], Brazil K001207609
    Glaziou [5974], Brazil K001207603
    Wilson [s.n.], Jamaica Alternanthera polygonoides K000582980
    Bautista, H.P. [761], Brazil Alternanthera polygonoides K001207550
    Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil Alternanthera polygonoides K001207552
    Jangoux, J. [453], Brazil Alternanthera polygonoides K001207551
    Claussen [s.n.], Brazil Alternanthera polygonoides K001207549
    Schomburgk, R. [106], Australia Alternanthera nana K000357342
    Schomburgk, R. [27], Australia Alternanthera nana K000357343
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia Alternanthera nana K000357338
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia Alternanthera nana K000357339
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia Alternanthera nana K000357341
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia Alternanthera nana K000357344
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia Alternanthera nana K000357346
    Tate, R. [s.n.], Australia Alternanthera nana K000357340
    Stuart, C., Australia Alternanthera nana K000357345

    First published in Cat. Pl. Horti Monsp.: 77 (1813)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Ramos Senna, L., Giulietti, A.M. & Rapini, A. (2010). Flora da Bahia: Amaranthaceae - Amaranthoideae e Gomphrenoideae Sitientibus Sérrie Ciências Biológicas 10: 3-73.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Berhaut, J. (1971). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 1: 1-626. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Goodwin, Z.A. & al. (2013). A checklist of the vascular plants of the lowland savannas of Belize, Central America Phytotaxa 101: 1-119.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Ramos Senna, L., Giulietti, A.M. & Rapini, A. (2010). Flora da Bahia: Amaranthaceae - Amaranthoideae e Gomphrenoideae Sitientibus Sérrie Ciências Biológicas 10: 3-73.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flore des Mascareignes 136-148: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1988). Flora Zambesiaca 9(1): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1985). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Amaranthaceae: 1-136.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 137 (1974).
    • Cavaco in Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris, sér. B, 13: 158 (1962).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 75 (1953).
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 73 (1951).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1: 115 (1950).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 138 (1948).
    • Gilg in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 174 (1895).
    • DC., Cat. Hort. Monsp.: 77 (1813).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/