1. Family: Amaranthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Amaranthus L.
      1. Amaranthus spinosus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual herb, erect or slightly decumbent, up to ± 1.5 m.
    Stem
    Stem stout, sometimes reddish, usually branched, angular, glabrous or increasingly furnished above (especially in the inflorescence) with long multicellular flocculent hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous or thinly pilose on the lower surface of the primary nervation, long-petiolate (petioles up to ± 9 cm., sometimes longer than the lamina); lamina ovate to rhomboid-ovate, elliptic, lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate, ± 1.5–12 × 0.8–6 cm., subacute or more commonly blunt or retuse at the tip, with a distinct fine colourless mucro, cuneate or attenuate at the base; each leaf-axil bearing a pair of fine and slender to stout and compressed spines up to ± 2.5 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers green, in the lower part of the plant in axillary clusters 6–15 mm. in diameter; towards the ends of the stem and branches the clusters leafless and approximated to form simple or (the terminal at least) usually branched spikes up to ± 15 cm. long and 1 cm. wide; lower clusters entirely ♀ as are the lower flowers of the spikes; upper flowers of the spikes ♂, mostly for the apica 1/4–2/3 of each spike.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate, pale and membranous, with an erect reddish awn formed by the excurrent midrib; bracteoles shorter than, subequalling or a little exceeding the perianth, commonly smaller than the bracts.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments 5, narrowly oblong or spathulate-oblong, 1.5–2.5 mm., obtuse or acute, mucronulate, frequently with a greenish dorsal vitta; ♂ broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, acute or acuminate, only the midrib green.
    Stigma
    Stigmas (2–)3, flexuose or reflexed, 1–1.5 mm.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short inflated beak below the style-base ± 1.5 mm., regularly or irregularly circumscissile or rarely indehiscent, the lid rugulose below the neck.
    Seeds
    Seed 0.75–1 mm., compressed, black, shining, very faintly reticulate.
    Figures
    Fig. 4/10.
    Habitat
    Commonly as a weed of cultivation, waste ground and roadsides, also occurring in open grassland and in wet ground by swamps and along rivers; 0–1820 m.
    Distribution
    throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, occurring occasionally as a casual in temperate regions alsopresumed to be of American origin K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T6 T7 T8
    [FWTA]

    Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Erect annual herb, 1–3 ft. high
    Note
    A common weed.
    [FZ]

    Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Annual herb, erect or slightly decumbent, up to c. 1.5 m. in height.
    Stem
    Stem stout, sometimes reddish, usually branched, angular, glabrous or increasingly furnished above (especially in the inflorescence) with short or longer, multicellular, flocculent hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous, or thinly pilose on the lower surface of the primary venation, long-petiolate (petioles up to c. 9 cm. long, sometimes longer than the lamina), lamina lanceolate-ovate to rhomboid-ovate, elliptic, lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate, c. 1.5–12 × 0.8–6 cm., subacute or more commonly blunt or retuse at the apex with a distinct, fine colourless mucro, cuneate or attenuate at the base; each leaf-axil bearing a pair of fine and slender to stout and compressed spines up to c. 2.5 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers green, in the lower parts of the plant in axillary clusters 6–15 mm. in diam., towards the ends of the stem and branches the clusters leafless and approximated to form simple or (the terminal at least) branched spikes up to c. 15 cm. long and 1 cm. wide. Lower flower clusters entirely female, as are the lower flowers of the spikes; upper flowers of spikes male, mostly for the apical 1/4–2/3 of each spike.
    Bracts
    Bracts and bracteoles deltoid-ovate, pale-membranous, with an erect, commonly reddish awn formed by the excurrent green midrib: bracteoles shorter than to a little exceeding the perianth, commonly smaller than the bracts.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments 5, those of the female flowers c. 1.5–2.5 mm. long, narrowly oblong or spathulate-oblong, obtuse or acute, mucronulate, frequently with a greenish dorsal vitta; those of the male flowers broadly lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, acute or acuminate, only the midrib green.
    Stigma
    Stigmas (2) 3, flexuose or reflexed, 1–1.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid-urceolate with a short, inflated beak below the style-base, c. 1.5 mm. long, regularly or irregularly circumcissile or more rarely indehiscent, the lid rugulose below the beak.
    Seeds
    Seed 0.75–1 mm. across, black, compressed, shining, very faintly reticulate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Galápagos, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saudi Arabia, Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Andaman Is., Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, Connecticut, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, District of Columbia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kansas, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Liberia, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nebraska, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Queensland, Rhode I., Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., South Carolina, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Uganda, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Amaranthus spinosus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2003 Pollard, B.J. [844], Cameroon K000197897
    May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9410], Cameroon K000051115
    Jan 1, 1953 Morton, J.K. [6735], Cameroon K000025556
    Harley, R.M. [20516], Brazil K001207099
    Harley, R.M. [21083], Brazil K001207102
    Hepper, F.N. [2080], Cameroon K000025555
    Philcox, D. [3982], Brazil K001207097
    Maitland, T.D. [0s.n100], Cameroon K000025552
    Maitland, T.D. [43b], Cameroon K000025553
    Sanford, W.W. [5438], Cameroon K000025557
    Hutchinson, J. [117], Cameroon K000025554
    Fotius [1412], Brazil K001207100
    Hage, J.L. [967], Brazil K001207093
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Peru K000202221
    Irwin, H.S. [26066], Brazil K001207094
    Irwin, H.S. [29582], Brazil K001207098
    Eiten, G. [3470], Brazil K001207084
    Eiten, G. [3617], Brazil K001207089
    Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001207096
    Silva, G.P. [2464], Brazil K001207090
    Pickersgill, B. [RU/72/225], Brazil K001207101
    Kuhlmann, M. [1407], Brazil K001207085
    Gehrt, A. [s.n.], Brazil K001207087
    Thompson, S.A. [1500], Cameroon K000025558
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6894], Myanmar K001126082
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6894], Myanmar K001126083
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6894], Myanmar K001126084
    da Silva, G.P. [2464], Brazil K001207088
    Handro, O. [s.n.], Brazil K001207086
    Pires, J.M. [51026], Brazil K001207083
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [25], Brazil K001207091
    Nascimento, M.S.B. [438], Brazil K001207092
    Prance, G.T. [7278], Brazil K001207095
    Traill, J.W.H. [687], Brazil K001207080
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126080
    Gardner [3429], Brazil K001207082
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126075
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126076
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126077
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894], Bangladesh K001126078
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126079
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6894] K001126081
    Burchell [10018], Brazil K001207081

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 991 (1753)

    Accepted by

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    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Iamonico, D. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy Phytotaxa 199: 1-84.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
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    • Sánchez-del Pino, I., Espadas, C. & Pool, R. (2013). Taxonomy and richness of nine genera of Amaranthaceae s.s. (Caryophyllales) in the Yucatan peninsula biotic province Phytotaxa 107: 1-74.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
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    • Ramos Senna, L., Giulietti, A.M. & Rapini, A. (2010). Flora da Bahia: Amaranthaceae - Amaranthoideae e Gomphrenoideae Sitientibus Sérrie Ciências Biológicas 10: 3-73.
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    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
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    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
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    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
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    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
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    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
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    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 528.
    • Thellung in Asch. & Grabner Synopsis 5, 1: 267 (1914)
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 32
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Bayón, N.D. (2015). Revisión taxonómica de las especies monoicas de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae): Amaranthus subg. Amaranthus y Amaranthus subg. Albersia Annals from the Missouri Botanical Garden 101: 261-383. MBG press.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Iamonico, D. (2015). Taxonomic revision of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) in Italy Phytotaxa 199: 1-84.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Sánchez-del Pino, I., Espadas, C. & Pool, R. (2013). Taxonomy and richness of nine genera of Amaranthaceae s.s. (Caryophyllales) in the Yucatan peninsula biotic province Phytotaxa 107: 1-74.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Ramos Senna, L., Giulietti, A.M. & Rapini, A. (2010). Flora da Bahia: Amaranthaceae - Amaranthoideae e Gomphrenoideae Sitientibus Sérrie Ciências Biológicas 10: 3-73.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0