1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Pogonarthria Stapf
      1. Pogonarthria squarrosa (Licht.) Pilg.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagacar.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial; culms 40–150 cm. high, stiffly erect, unbranched.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 4–33 cm. long, 2–5.5 mm. wide, flat or convolute especially towards the narrow tapering tip, scabrid on the upper surface, smooth beneath; ligule 0.25–0.5 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence linear-oblong to pyramidal, 11–44 cm. long; racemes 1–6.5(–8.5) cm. long, ascending or spreading, often falcately curved, tardily deciduous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4–10-flowered, elliptic to narrowly elliptic-oblong, 3.3–7.8 mm. long, biseriate, disarticulating between the florets, but often also with the glumes and lemmas falling irregularly at maturity leaving the paleas on the rhachilla, tips of the rhachilla-internodes shortly and often sparsely bearded; glumes lanceolate, scabrid especially on the keel, dark reddish brown, the lower 0.8–1.5 mm. long, the upper 1.6–2.3 mm. long; lemmas 2–3 mm. long, scabrid, sharply acuminate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis elliptic-oblong, 0.5–0.75 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 73.
    Habitat
    Grassland or open woodland and on waste ground and river banks, on poor sandy soils, occasionally growing on bare sand; 500–1870 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K4 T1 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U3 southwards to Cape Province of South Africa, also from Ghana eastwards to Sudan (Jebel Marra) and Eritrea
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial; culms up to 100(120) cm tall, stiffly erect, unbranched; leaf laminas (3)7–24(33) cm × (1)2–4(5.5) mm, flat or convolute especially towards the narrow tapering apex.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence (7)12–30(44) cm long; racemes 1–8(10) cm long, ascending or spreading, often falcately curved.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3–6(8) mm long, 4–10-flowered, elliptic to narrowly elliptic-oblong; rhachilla internodes terete, hairy towards the apex, rarely only scabrid; glumes lanceolate, the inferior 0.9–1.2(1.6) mm long, the superior (1.7)2–2.6(2.8) mm long; lemmas 2.3–2.8(3) mm long (very rarely to 3.6 mm), ovate-lanceolate, sharply acuminate at the apex.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Erect perennial 45–90 cm. high
    Ecology
    Bare stony and disturbed soils.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 40-150 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.25-0.5 mm long. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 4-33 cm long; 2-5.5 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous. Leaf-blade apex attenuate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; bearing juvenile spikelets at emergence. Racemes numerous; borne along a central axis; spreading, or ascending; straight, or arcuate; unilateral; 1-6.5 cm long. Central inflorescence axis 11-44 cm long. Rhachis deciduous from axis; angular. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded. Spikelets ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 3.3-7.8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; rhachilla persistent; retaining paleas; fragile above; with the distal florets disarticulating separately. Rhachilla internodes pubescent; hairy at tip.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; 3.3-7.8 mm long; breaking up at maturity; rhachilla persistent; retaining paleas; fragile above; with the distal florets disarticulating separately. Rhachilla internodes pubescent; hairy at tip.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.8-1.5 mm long; 0.5-0.7 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface scabrous. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 2.6-4.2 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile florets decreasing in size upwards. Fertile lemma ovate; 2-3 mm long; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma surface asperulous. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea elliptic; 0.9 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed; trigonous; 0.5-0.75 mm long. Embryo 0.3-0.4 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Cross grass, Herringbone grass, Sickle grass

    Pogonarthria squarrosa (Licht.) Pilg. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Schlechter [4250], Transvaal K000365364 Unknown type material
    Zeyher [s.n.], Free State K000365362 Unknown type material
    Rehmann, A. [3514], Free State K000365363 Unknown type material
    Rehmann, A. [3753], Free State K000365365
    Rehmann, A. [5118], South Africa K000365366 Unknown type material
    Chiovenda, E. [315], Eritrea K000365673 Unknown type material
    Rehmann [5118], Transvaal K000365361
    Atherstone, W. G. [72], Transvaal K000365360 Unknown type material

    First published in Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5: 149 (1910)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 5: 149 (1910).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 397 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 38 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 50 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 21 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 55 (1958).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 39 (1947).
    • Pilg. in Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahelm 5: 149 (1910).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/