1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Stachytarpheta Vahl
      1. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. U.S.A. to Tropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Perennial well-branched herb 0.6–1.2 m. tall, woody at base; stems glabrous or very slightly pubescent, rarely more distinctly hairy on the young shoots, often purplish.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate, elliptic or ± oblong, 1.5–11 cm. long, 0.8–5 cm. wide, ± obtuse in outline at apex, long-attenuate into ± 1 cm. long petiole at base.
    Inflorescences
    Spikes long and narrow, 14–45(–50) cm. long, glabrous; bracts lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 5–8 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, acuminate.
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 5–6.5 mm. long, bifid at apex, 4-toothed, the 2 central teeth rather shorter.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale blue to deep or royal blue or purple, sometimes with a white centre; tube 0.8–1.1 cm. long, slightly curved; limb ± 8 mm. diameter, the lobes ± 3 mm. long.
    Stigma
    Stigrna included.
    Fruits
    Mericarps dark, linear-oblong, 4(–?7) mm. long, 1 mm. wide, dorsally ribbed.
    Habitat
    Seasonally wet grassland, near villages and reported as a very common weed in Zanzibar, occurring in pure stands over large areas; ± 0–90 m.
    Distribution
    P T6 Z S. U.S.A to Ecuador and Brazil and W. Indies, introduced to and naturalized in Africa, Madagascar, Indian Ocean Is., tropical Asia, Australasia and Oceania
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type a specimen in the Linnean herb. (S, lectotype, microfiche 7.13).
    General
    A perennial herb or subshrub, 0.3–1.2 m high, woody at the base, ± sparsely pubescent mainly on the young parts, glabrescent on older parts
    Style
    Style exserted 3–4 mm above the calyx after the fall of the corolla Style exserted 3–4 mm above the calyx after the fall of the corolla.
    Calyx
    Fruiting calyx ± completely embedded in the furrows of the rhachis Calyx 5–6 × 2.5 mm, tubular, ellipsoid, bifid and without peltate glands at the apex, 4-toothed, the 2 central teeth rather shorter. Calyx 5–6 × 2.5 mm, tubular, ellipsoid, bifid and without peltate glands at the apex, 4-toothed, the 2 central teeth rather shorter
    Fruits
    Mericarps c. 7 mm long. Mericarps c. 7 mm long.
    Ecology
    Seasonally wet floodplain grasslands; c. 10–40 m.
    Distribution
    District code: MOZ Z. Native to, and widely distributed throughout, tropical America.  Introduced to and naturalized in Africa, Madagascar, Indian Ocean Islands, tropical Asia, Australasia and Oceania. Mozambique
    Habit
    A perennial herb or subshrub, 0.3–1.2 m high, woody at the base, ± sparsely pubescent mainly on the young parts, glabrescent on older parts.
    Stem
    Stem and branches pilose at the nodes, often purplish. Stem and branches pilose at the nodes, often purplish
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, lamina 2–9(11) × 1.2–5.5 cm, elliptic, oblong, obovate or spathulate, obtuse to rounded or somewhat acute at the apex, attenuate and decurrent into the petiole or ± rounded and abruptly narrowed and narrowly tapering-cuneate into the petiole, crenate-dentate on the margin with 7–15 teeth on each side, entire below, glabrous on both surfaces or with sparse hairs on the nerves beneath; petiole up to c. 1 cm long. Leaves petiolate, lamina 2–9(11) × 1.2–5.5 cm, elliptic, oblong, obovate or spathulate, obtuse to rounded or somewhat acute at the apex, attenuate and decurrent into the petiole or ± rounded and abruptly narrowed and narrowly tapering-cuneate into the petiole, crenate-dentate on the margin with 7–15 teeth on each side, entire below, glabrous on both surfaces or with sparse hairs on the nerves beneath; petiole up to c. 1 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Spikes slender, 14–45(50) cm long, up to 4 mm thick in fruit, glabrous; bracts 5–8 × 2–2.5 mm, ± as broad as the fruiting calyx, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, apically attenuate, not longer than the fruiting calyx, striate, scarious on the margins, glabrous, not thickened or a very little so at the base. Spikes slender, 14–45(50) cm long, up to 4 mm thick in fruit, glabrous; bracts 5–8 × 2–2.5 mm, ± as broad as the fruiting calyx, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, apically attenuate, not longer than the fruiting calyx, striate, scarious on the margins, glabrous, not thickened or a very little so at the base
    Corolla
    Corolla blue, violet or nearly white; tube 8–11 mm long, slightly curved, exserted up to c. 5 mm above the calyx; limb c. 9 mm in diameter, the lobes c. 3 mm long. Corolla blue, violet or nearly white; tube 8–11 mm long, slightly curved, exserted up to c. 5 mm above the calyx; limb c. 9 mm in diameter, the lobes c. 3 mm long
    Fruiting calyx
    Fruiting calyx ± completely embedded in the furrows of the rhachis.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Brazil North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Brazil Northeast, Cambodia, Central African Repu, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., East Himalaya, Gilbert Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Marianas, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nauru, Nicobar Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Phoenix Is., Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Taiwan, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 Sumarno [SMR 2], Indonesia K000576241
    Jan 1, 2003 Milliken, W. [2285], Brazil K000944062
    Gomes, A.I. [s.n.], Brazil K000944061
    Gardner [1105], Brazil K000944060
    Gardner [1105], Brazil K000944164
    Zollinger [849], Jawa Stachytarpheta bogoriensis K000759931 Unknown type material

    First published in Enum. Pl. Obs. 1: 206 (1804)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Hammel, B.E. & Grayum, M.H. (2011). Lectotypification and reinstatement of Stachytarpheta friedrichsthalii (Verbenaceae), with notes on the Lectotypification of S. indica Novon 21: 437-439.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Vikraman, R.R., Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 765-781.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Atkins, S. (2005). The genus Stachytarpheta (Verbenaceae) in Brazil Kew Bulletin 60: 161-272.
    • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 19 (1992).
    • Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 57 : 100 (1984).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 253 (1983).
    • Adams, Fl. Pl. Jamaica: 632 (1972).
    • Britton, Fl. Bermuda: 313, fig. 334 (1918, facsim. 1965).
    • sensu Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr., Fl. Java 2 : 598 (1965), non Verbena indica L. (1759) neque Stachytarpheta indica (L.) Vahl (1804).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2 : 434, fig. 305 M-R (1963).
    • Fl. Madag., Verbenaceae: 22, fig. III, 1–2 (1956).
    • Roberty, Petite Fl. Ouest-Afr.: 180 (1954) pro parte.
    • Kew Bull. 5 : 225, fig. B (1950).
    • Blumea 5 : 70 (1942).
    • Lilloa 4 : 300 (1939)
    • Hutchinson & Dalziel, F.W.T.A. 2 : 277 (1931) pro parte quoad Vogel 30, Mann 89, Scott & Elliot 3833 et Johnston s.n.
    • Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 40 : 5 (1929).
    • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 , 3a: 154 (1895) pro parte.
    • Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl., part 2: 509 (1891).
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 564 (1847) pro parte, as “ Stachytarpha” .
    • Bot. Mag. 44 : t. 1860 (1817).
    • L., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 1 : 115 (1797).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Leti, M., Hul, S., Fouché, J.-G., Cheng, S.K. & David, B. (2013). Flore photographique du Cambodge: 1-589. Éditions Privat, Toulouse.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Atkins, S. (2005). The genus Stachytarpheta (Verbenaceae) in Brazil Kew Bulletin 60: 161-272.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Stoddard, D.R. (1994). Flora of the Phoenix Islands, Central Pacific Atoll Research Bulletin 393: 1-60.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. Fernandes in Bol. Soc. Brot., sér. 2, 57: 96, 100 (1984).
    • Moldenke in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 253 (1983) (extensive information and synonymy).
    • Fosberg & Renvoize, Fl. Aldabra: 225, fig. 35/7 (1980).
    • Adams, Fl. Pl. Jamaica: 632 (1972).
    • Moldenke in Fl. Madag., Fam. 174: 22, fig. 3/1–2 (1956).
    • Moldenke in Lilloa 4: 300 (1939)
    • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 2: 277 (1931), pro parte.
    • Briquet in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 4, 3a: 154 (1895), pro parte.
    • Schauer in DC., Prodr. 11: 564 (1847), pro parte.
    • Sims in Bot. Mag. 44, t. 1860 (1817).
    • Vahl, Enum. Pl. 1: 206 (1804).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0