1. Family: Bignoniaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Markhamia Seem. ex Baill.
      1. Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K.Schum.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ghana to South Sudan and Tanzania.

    [FTEA]

    Bignoniaceae, Sally Bidgood, Bernard Verdcourt, Kaj Vollesen. Cobaeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Type
    Type: Fernando Po, Vogel 60 (K!, lecto.)
    Habit
    Tree (5–)15–21(–24) m tall or sometimes shrubby 1.2–4.5 m tall, regenerating and coppicing easily.
    Trunk
    Trunk sometimes divided from base, sometimes fluted.
    Bark
    Bark greyblack or reddish brown, smooth or rough, ridged.
    Branches
    Branches usually densely lenticellate; wood reddish.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 35 cm long.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets (2–)3–6-jugate, elliptic to obovate, 4.5–21 × 4–9 cm, cuneate to rounded at the base, acuminate at the apex, glabrous but densely lepidote above, more sparsely so beneath, often with pubescent axillary domatia beneath.
    Petiole
    Petiole 6–12 cm long; petiolules up to 5(–10) mm long or ± absent; pseudostipules ± round, 2–3 cm diameter.
    Flowers
    Flowers scented, in often narrow terminal panicles up to 20 cm long and wide.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels ± 5(–10) mm long.
    Bracts
    Bracts triangular, 1–5 mm long, 1 mm wide.
    Calyx
    Calyx spathaceous, 1.8–2.6(–3) cm long, 0.7–1.4 cm wide, woolly when young, becoming glabrous, lepidote and with glands on the margin opposite the split, often very distinctly uncinate at the tip.
    Corolla
    Corolla golden yellow with brownish purple or red veins or spots at the throat; tube (2–)3–4.5 cm long, up to 2.5 cm wide at the throat; limb 2-lipped, 5-lobed, the lobes (1–)1.5–2.5 cm long and wide, with distinct glands but varying in number.
    Fruits
    Capsule curved, 35–80(?–105) cm long, 1–2 cm wide, compressed, glabrous but lepidote.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.5–3.5 cm long, 6–8 mm wide including the wing.
    Ecology
    Wooded grassland, submontane and riverine forest, evergreen rain forest; 1500–1900 m
    Note
    In a herbarium memorandum and various annotations on herbarium covers J. Gillett sank M. hildebrandtii and M. platyclayx together and later accepted Liben’s published statement that the latter was conspecific with M. lutea. Gentry published this synonymy in the references given above. We have followed this but with some hesitation. Material from eastern Kenya undoubtedly differs to some degree from material from western Kenya and Uganda. M. hildebrandtii was distinguished by Sprague as having a distinctly uncinate calyx, more infundibuliform flowers and very few large floral glands. Sandwith in the mid-1900’s kept all three separate. Typical M. platycalyx with wider almost clavate calyx much larger more campanulate corolla with often numerous floral glands appears very different. In West Africa, however, uncinate or at least narrowly acuminate calyces reappear. A specimen Mwangangi 1945/B (Kenya, Machakos District, near Nunguni, Kilungu Forest), which on geographical grounds would be expected to be nearest M. hildebrandtii actually has the calyx of M. platycalyx. Being a well known timber it is possible this was cultivated from non-local seed. The species would repay study in the field throughout its range to see if subspecies could be recognised. A specimen Kayombo 1659 ( T 6, Ulanga District, Nambiga Forest Reserve, 5 km W of main road from Iragua to Itete, 380 m) differs from this species in the leaflets having much more widely spaced lateral nerves (± 6 instead of 8–14). It may represent a distinct taxon and is from a low altitude; fruits and a larger range of leaves showing variation are needed. The large yellow corolla 6 cm long and calyx 2 cm long agree with M. lutea. This species is extensively planted particularly in Uganda as it is commonly used as a local timber. Also grown as an ornamental in Kenya: Nairobi Arboretum, 14 July 1952, G.R. Williams 483 & National Museum grounds, 11 Sept. 1952, G.R. Williams 521; and Tanzania: Arusha District: Narok Camp, 22 March 1951, J.F. Hughes H58; Lushoto District: Amani, Kiumba Plantation, 21 Oct. 1930, Greenway 2546.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K3 K4 K5 T1 T3 T 4 (planted in T 2) Range: West Africa from Ghana to Cameroon, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi
    [FWTA]

    Bignoniaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrub or tree 15-30 ft. high
    Indumentum
    Finely scaly branchlets becoming glabrous
    Flowers
    Yellow flowers marked with purple, over 2 in. long in terminal axillary corymbose panicles
    Fruits
    Long narrow falcate fruits 1 1/2-3 ft. long
    Seeds
    Seeds 1 1/4 in. long, including the hyaline wing at each end.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

    Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K.Schum. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [7454], Cameroon K000108475
    Jul 1, 2001 Etuge, M. [4284], Cameroon K000108461
    Jul 1, 2001 Groves, M. [38], Cameroon K000108467
    Jan 1, 1976 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9017], Cameroon K000028988
    Dalziel, J.M. [8237], Cameroon K000028993
    Dalziel, J.M. [8237], Cameroon K000028994
    Dalziel, J.M. [8237], Cameroon K000028995
    Dalziel, J.M. [8237], Cameroon K000028996
    Maitland, T.D. [475], Cameroon K000028992
    Thomas, D.W. [2571], Cameroon K000028990
    Vogel [60], Bioko K000430370
    Vogel [s.n.], Bioko K000430371
    Staudt, A. [486], Cameroon K000028998
    Kalbreyer, W. [33], Cameroon K000028997
    Gentry, A.H. [52833], Cameroon K000028991
    Markhamia platycalyx 17143.000
    Troupin, G. [4102], Congo, DRC Markhamia platycalyx 11693.000
    Troupin, G. [4193], Rwanda Markhamia platycalyx 23984.000
    Troupin, G. [3010], Congo Markhamia platycalyx 25248.000
    Wilson, C.T. [119], Uganda Markhamia platycalyx K000430361 Unknown type material
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [2732], Kenya Markhamia hildebrandtii K000430360 Unknown type material

    First published in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3b): 242 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lebrun, J.P. & Stork, A.L. in Lebrun J.-P. & Stork, A.L. (1997). Bignoniaceae Énumération des Plants à Fleurs D'Afrique Tropicale 4: 456-461. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
    • Gentry, A. H. (1985). Bignoniaceae Flore du Gabon 27: 19-56. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1931). Bignoniaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa 2(1): 237-242.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Kew Bull. 1919: 311.
    • Sprague in F.T.A. 4, 2: 525
    • in E. & P., Pflanzenfam. 4, 3B: 242 (1895)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Gentry, A. H. (1985). Bignoniaceae Flore du Gabon 27: 19-56. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Gentry, A.H. (1984). Bignoniacées Flore du Cameroun 27: 26-61. Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche scientifique (Mesres), Yaoundé.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1931). Bignoniaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa 2(1): 237-242.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • K.T.S.L: 592, fig., map (1994).
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 381, t. 396 (1987)
    • Fl. Gabon 27: 34, t. 7 (1985)
    • Fl. Cameroun 27: 36, t. 10 (1984)
    • Liben, F.A.C. Bignon.: 28, fig. 2A (1977)
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 387 (1963)
    • F.P.NA. 2: 248 (1947)
    • K.B. 1919: 311 (1919)
    • F.T.A. 4(2): 525 (1906)
    • Hook. Ic. 28: sub t. 2800 (1905)
    • E. & P., Pf. 4 (3b): 242 (1895)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0