1. Family: Bignoniaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Markhamia Seem. ex Baill.
      1. Markhamia obtusifolia (Baker) Sprague

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central African Republic to Kenya and NE. Namibia.

    [FTEA]

    Bignoniaceae, Sally Bidgood, Bernard Verdcourt, Kaj Vollesen. Cobaeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Type
    Type: Mozambique, Shupanga, Kirk s.n. (K!, lecto.), chosen by Diniz
    Habit
    Shrub 1.5–3.5 m tall or small tree 5–15(?–20) m tall*, freely regenerating.
    Bark
    Bark pale brown or grey, smooth or somewhat striated or ridged in larger trees.
    Branches
    Young branches golden brown velvety tomentose, soon glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 18–56 cm long.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets (1–)3–5(–6)-jugate, oblong, elliptic, ovate or obovate, (4.5–)6.5–18(–23) × 2.5–9.5(–13.5) cm, cuneate, rounded or subcordate at the base, entire or very slightly serrate, rounded or obtuse to very shortly acuminate at the apex, puberulous or pubescent above, densely woolly velvety beneath.
    Petiole
    Petiole 2–9.5 cm long; petiolules 0–2 mm long; pseudostipules subulate, 0.5–1.3 cm long, tomentose.
    Flowers
    Flowers in dense tomentose terminal panicles, at first tight clusters ± 8 cm long, later 10–30(–40) cm long.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 1–2.8 cm long, bracts 0.5–1(–1.5) cm long.
    Buds
    Buds ± uncinate.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.9–3.3(–4) cm long, 1.5–2.5 cm wide, obtusely cuspidate or uncinate, split to about 4–8 mm from the base, densely golden tomentose.
    Corolla
    Corolla bright yellow or orange-yellow with maroon guide lines in throat and maroon stripes or spots on 3 lower lobes; tube 3.5–4.5 cm long with lobes 1.5–3 cm long and wide and upper part of tube with conspicuous glands.
    Fruits
    Capsule nearly straight or curved, (20–)39–87 cm long, 1.4–2.8 cm wide, with prominent longitudinal median ridge on valves and marginal ones near sutures, densely golden velvety tomentose.
    Seeds
    Seeds narrowly oblong, 3–4 cm long, 0.7–1.2 cm wide including the wing.
    Figures
    Fig. 8, p. 36.
    Ecology
    Wooded grassland, bushland, Brachystegia woodland, C ommiphora thicket, lakeshore forest, often on rocky hills; (0–)250–2050 m
    Note
    K. Schumann merely gives ‘aus den Steppen Ostafrikas’ for his M. lanata but it is almost certain that Fischer 461 (Kagehi), Buchwald 697 (Usambaras), Holst 2228 (E Usambaras, Magila) and Busse 50 (probably T 3) are all syntypes; duplicates of the last three at Kew are isosyntypes. M. obtusifolia has been cultivated as an ornamental in Kenya (Nairobi, 1942, Bally 6168).
    Distribution
    Range: Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa; cultivated in Nairobi (Note: * KTS records the species from Nyanza and Diniz in FZ gives Kenya in her distribution. We have seen no wild materi Flora districts: T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Bignoniaceae, M. A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

    Habit
    Bushy shrub up to 1.5–5 m. or small tree 5–15 m. high.
    Bark
    Bark light brown to grey, smooth to somewhat striated in large specimens.
    Branches
    Branchlets velvety tomentose with golden brown hairs, soon glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 18–56 cm. long (1)3–5(6)-jugate, inferior pairs smaller, pseudostipules 0.5–1.3 cm. long, subulate-acuminate, tomentose; petiole 2–9.5 cm. long; leaflet-lamina (4.5)6.5–5.17(23) × 2.5–9.5(13.5) cm.; elliptic to oblong, ovate or obovate, sessile, apex obtuse to rounded, sometimes acute to shortly acuminate, rarely longly acuminate, base obtuse, rounded to subcordate, sometimes asymmetric margins entire or rarely thinly serrate pubescent to puberulous on the superior surface, densely woolly on the inferior; lateral nerves (6)7–12(14).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a dense and tomentose terminal, many-flowered densely branched panicle 10–30(40) cm. long; pedicels 1–2.3(2.8) cm. long; bracts 0.5–1(1.5) cm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.9–3.3 × 1.5–2.5 cm. obtusely cuspidate or uncinate, fissuring down to 4–8 mm. from the base, densely tomentose with golden hairs.
    Corolla
    Corolla bright yellow, funnel-shaped to campanulate; lobes spreading, subcircular, 1.7–3 cm. in diam., the 3 lower ones streaked brown-reddish and with conspicuous glands near the mouth of the 2.5–4.5 cm. long corolla tube.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 1.5–2 cm. long, pilose at the bass, adnate to the corolla tube up to c. 1 cm. from the base; anther-thecae 2.3–3.5 mm. long, divergent.
    Disc
    Disk 2 mm. long and 4–5 mm. in diam., cupuliform.
    Ovary
    Ovary 5–8 mm. long; style 17–27 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule 20.84 x 1.8–2.5 cm., falciform to nearly straight, flattened, velvety tomentose with golden soft hairs, valves with a prominent longitudinally median ridge and two marginal ones near the dehiscing lines.
    Seeds
    Seeds 0.7–1.2 x 3.36 cm. including the wing.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Burundi, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Trinidad-Tobago

    Markhamia obtusifolia (Baker) Sprague appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2005 Hochobes, M.M. [MH1202], Namibia K000662156
    May 1, 1983 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000430350 Unknown type material
    May 1, 1983 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Tanzania K000430359 syntype
    May 1, 1983 Buchanan, J. [981], Malawi K000430353 Unknown type material
    May 1, 1983 Buchanan, J. [1494], Malawi K000430354 Unknown type material
    May 1, 1983 Buchanan, J. [10], Malawi K000430355 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1983 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000430351 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1983 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000430352 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1983 Smith, P.A. [1179], Botswana K000283264
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7701], Tanzania 6685.000
    Gossweiler, J. [13844], Angola K001009745
    Tanner, R.T. [494], Tanzania 6689.000
    Harris, T. [115], Mozambique K000545098
    Winter, B. de [1725CC], Namibia K000283265

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1919: 312 (1919)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Bignoniaceae Southen Africa Botany Diversity Network Reports 37.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
    • Smithies, S.I. (2003). Bignoniceae, In: Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 312-313. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lebrun, J.P. & Stork, A.L. in Lebrun J.-P. & Stork, A.L. (1997). Bignoniaceae Énumération des Plants à Fleurs D'Afrique Tropicale 4: 456-461. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
    • Diniz, M.A. (1990). Bignoniaceae Flora de Moçambique 120: 1-35. Instituto de Investigaçao Científuca Tropical.
    • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
    • Diniz, M.A. (1990). Bignoniaceae Flora de Moçambique 120: 1-35. Instituto de Investigaçao Científuca Tropical.
    • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • C.F.A. 122 Bignon.: 23 (1993).
    • F.Z. 8(3): 76, t. 143 (1988)
    • Palgrave, Trees S. Afr.: 831 (1981)
    • Opera Bot. 59: 78 (1980)
    • Liben. F.A.C., Bignon: 32, t.8, A–C (1977)
    • F.F.N.R.: 379 (1962)
    • K.T.S.: 62 (1961)
    • T.T.C.L.: 71 (1949)
    • K.B. 1919: 312 (1919)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0