1. Family: Bignoniaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Markhamia Seem. ex Baill.
      1. Markhamia zanzibarica (Bojer ex DC.) K.Schum.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Somalia to NE. Namibia.

    [FTEA]

    Bignoniaceae, Sally Bidgood, Bernard Verdcourt, Kaj Vollesen. Cobaeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Type
    Type: Zanzibar, Bojer s.n.(G, holo.)
    Habit
    Shrub or much branched small tree, 2.4–9(?–15) m tall, readily regenerating after cutting.
    Bark
    Bark pale grey, smooth or rough, peeling.
    Branches
    Young branches usually lenticellate, minutely scaly.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 35 cm long.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets 1–4-jugate or rarely reduced to the terminal leaflet, elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, obovate, ovate or almost round, 2–25(–33) × 2–13 cm, acute to long-acuminate or obtuse to rounded at the apex, cuneate to rounded at the base, almost entire to toothed or rarely almost lobed, glabrous in typical coastal specimens save for pubescent axillary domatia usually present beneath, pubescent to densely velvety in (mostly) inland material, densely to sparsely lepidote.
    Petiole
    Petiole 2–7(–9) cm long, sometimes together with rhachis faintly winged; petiolules 0–5 mm long; pseudostipules if present rounded to reniform, 0.5–2.5 cm long and wide.
    Flowers
    Flowers in terminal or axillary rather narrow lepidote panicles 2–11(–30) cm long.
    Peduncles
    Secondary peduncles up to 1 cm long.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 0.5–1.5(–2) cm long with bracts 2–5(–7) mm long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1–1.5 cm long, rounded, cuspidate or uncinate at the apex, split to about 8 mm from base, usually glabrous but densely hairy in some variants.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow-green to yellow, the tube ± densely speckled with liver red or reddish purple spots and blotches and the lobes dull brown to reddish purple inside and speckled outside (often mostly purplish or brown with reduced yellow markings); tube campanulate to funnel-shaped, (1.8–)2–3(–4) cm long, limb ± 2–lipped, 5-lobed, the lobes rounded, 1–1.5 cm long and wide; discoid glands present at top of tube and on the lobes, probably greenish in life but dark when dry.
    Fruits
    Capsule straight or curved, 14–72 × 0.9–1.8 cm, glabrous, usually with very conspicuous whitish lenticels.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2–4 cm long, 4–6 mm wide including wing.
    Ecology
    Thorn-bush, coastal thicket and woodland on coral rag, Adansonia–Dobera woodland, deciduous bushland and forest edges; 0–1350 m
    Note
    As treated here, following Diniz in F.Z., this species is extremely variable particularly in the shape, toothing and indumentum of the leaves. However, it has not been possible to divide it satisfactorily into infraspecific entities. Despite Diniz’s comment about the leaves (“or even glabrous”) the species is typically glabrous, material from the type locality and lowland coastal areas of Kenya and Tanzania having almost uniformly glabrous somewhat thick more evergreen leaves, with rare exceptions (e.g. Tanner 9, Pangani District, Msubugwe Forest and Harris 1544, Uzaramo District, 20 km NW of Dar es Salaam, Wazo Hill). Away from the coast material has puberulous to velvety leaves, glabrous to velvety calyces and much variation in leaf-size but no geographical correlation can be found. Very velvety variants could be given a varietal name based on Dolichandrone hirsuta Bak. A distinctive variant is Greenway & Kanuri 14441 (Iringa District, Ruaha National Park, Kinyantupa track) with rounded or oblanceolate leaflets 10–12 cm wide and distinctly lobed-crenate; other material from the same area is similar. A detailed field study of the species throughout its range may reveal characters not evident from herbarium material. Richards 24747 ( T 2) reports flowers pale cream. Jex-Blake, Gard. E. Afr.: 350 (1957) mentions this, but we have not been able to trace any cultivated material.
    Distribution
    Range: Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and northern South Africa; cultivated in northern Australia Flora districts: K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Z P
    [FZ]

    Bignoniaceae, M. A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

    Habit
    Shrub 2–5 m. tall or a small often straggling tree up to 9 m. tall.
    Bark
    Bark grey, smooth or rough, peeling off soon.
    Branches
    Young branchlets minutely lepidote, sometimes with conspicuous lenticels.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 35 cm. long (1) 2–4-jugate, size of the leaflet-pairs increasing progressively from the base; pseudostipules 0.5–1.7(2) cm. in diam., subcircular to reniform; petiole 2–7(9) cm. long, flat above, sometimes slightly winged, terete below, leaflet lamina 2–24.5(32.5) × 2–13 cm., elliptic, obovate or almost subcircular, sessile or with petiolules up to 5 mm. long, acute, acuminate to longly acuminate, rarely obtuse at the apex, tapering towards the often asymmetric base, pubescent and minutely scaly at both surfaces, with age becoming minutely and sparsely puberulous or even glabrous; lower surface with pubescent axillary domatiae more or less conspicuous and sometimes with small circular black glands near and on both sides of the midrib; lateral nerves 6–12(14), impressed above and prominent below; margins entire or finely toothed.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal or axillary panicle or raceme rather lax, 5–20(23) cm. long, scaly glabrous or puberulous; pedicels up to 1.5(2) cm. long, 2-bracteate below the middle; bracts 2–5(7) mm. long, triangular-acuminate, ciliate at the margins.
    Calyx
    Calyx 10–15(19) mm. long cuspidate or uncinate splitting at one side down to 8 mm. from the base sometimes provided with scattered glands towards the apex and opposite to the fissure.
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped to campanulate, tube (18) 20–30(43) mm. long, yellow-greenish flecked with maroon; lobes 10–15 mm. in diam., subcircular, sometimes with conspicuous small glands near the mouth.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 9–14 mm. long adnate to the corolla tube up to c. 5 mm. from the base, corolla tube provided with pluricellular hairs at the insertion points of the filaments; anther-thecae c. 1.5 mm. long, divergent.
    Disc
    Disk 1.5 mm. long and 2–3 mm. in diam.
    Ovary
    Ovary 3–5 mm. long, sometimes lepidote; style 15–27 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule slender, 22–68 × 0.9–1.5 cm., straight or slightly falcate, glabrous, lenticellate.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4–6 × 20–40 mm. including the wing.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Markhamia zanzibarica (Bojer ex DC.) K.Schum. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 1984 Welwitsch. [483], Angola K000430356 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1983 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000430358 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1983 Lugard, E.J. [58], Botswana K000489200
    Jan 1, 1983 Lugard, E.J. [55], Botswana K000489201
    Jan 1, 1983 Pole-Evans, I.B. [2594], Botswana K000489202
    Jan 1, 1983 Ngoni, J.F. [271], Botswana K000489199
    Jan 1, 1983 Allen, A. [394], Botswana K000489197
    Jan 1, 1983 Sow van [28775], Botswana K000489203
    Jan 1, 1983 Sow van [28775], Botswana K000489205
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7677], Tanzania 3754.000
    Gossweiler, J. [9324], Angola K001009746
    Gossweiler, J. [641], Angola K001009748
    Tweedie [3148], Kenya 53221.000
    Welwitsch [483], Angola K001009747
    Welwitsch. [482], Angola K000430357 Unknown type material
    Wakefield, T. [s.n.], Kenya K000430364
    Wakefield, T. [s.n.], Kenya K000430365
    Hansen, O.J. [3471], Botswana K000489196
    Hoogh, R.J. de [137], Botswana K000489204
    Terry, J. [193], Botswana K000489195
    Terry, J. [224], Botswana K000489198
    de Hoogh, R.J. [137], Botswana K001009749
    Jan 1, 2012 Congdon, T.C.E. [762], Tanzania Markhamia acuminata K000823869
    Fischer [460], Tanzania Markhamia acuminata K000430363 Unknown type material
    Hannington, J. [s.n.], Tanzania Markhamia acuminata K000430362

    First published in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4(3b): 242 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Setshogo, M.P. (2005). Bignoniaceae Southen Africa Botany Diversity Network Reports 37.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
    • Smithies, S.I. (2003). Bignoniceae, In: Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 312-313. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lebrun, J.P. & Stork, A.L. in Lebrun J.-P. & Stork, A.L. (1997). Bignoniaceae Énumération des Plants à Fleurs D'Afrique Tropicale 4: 456-461. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
    • Diniz, M.A. (1990). Bignoniaceae Flora de Moçambique 120: 1-35. Instituto de Investigaçao Científuca Tropical.
    • Diniz, M.A. (1988). 124. Bignoniaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(3): 61-85. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Curtis, B. & Mannheimer, C. (2005). Tree Atlas of Namibia: 1-688. The National Botanical Research Institute, Windhoek.
    • Smithies, S.I. (2003). Bignoniceae, In: Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 312-313. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Diniz, M.A. (1990). Bignoniaceae Flora de Moçambique 120: 1-35. Instituto de Investigaçao Científuca Tropical.
    • Diniz, M.A. (1988). 124. Bignoniaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(3): 61-85. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Som. 3: 304, fig. 210 (2006).
    • K.T.S.L.: 592, map (1994)
    • C.F.A. 122, Bignon.: 21 (1993)
    • F.Z. 8(3): 74, t. 14A (1988)
    • Opera Bot. 59: 78 (1980)
    • Liben, F.A.C. Bignon.: 26 (1977)
    • Acta Trop., suppl. 8: 149 (1964)
    • K.T.S.: 64 (1961)
    • T.T.C.L.: 72 (1949)
    • K.B. 1919: 313 (1919)
    • F.T.A. 4 (2): 523 (1906)
    • E. & P., Pf. 4 (3b): 242 (1895)
    • P.O.A. C: 363 (1895)
    • Abh. Königl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berl. 1894: 16 (1894)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0