Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Old World.
Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual; caespitose. Glands wart-like (on keel). Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-90 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 5-15 cm long; 2-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins glandular, or eglandular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open, or contracted; ovate; dense, or loose; 4-30 cm long. Panicle branches stiff; glandular. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; glandular.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 5-60 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; 3-20 mm long; 2-4 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; rhachilla persistent; retaining paleas; tough throughout, or fragile above; with the distal florets falling as a whole.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 5-60 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; 3-20 mm long; 2-4 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; rhachilla persistent; retaining paleas; tough throughout, or fragile above; with the distal florets falling as a whole.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes deciduous; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume ovate; 1.5-2.2 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; eglandular, or glandular (on keel); 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1.5-2.2 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; eglandular, or glandular; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma ovate, or orbicular; (1.3-)2-2.8 mm long; chartaceous; yellow, or grey; glandular on veins (keel); keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma lateral veins distinct. Lemma apex emarginate, or obtuse. Palea keels scabrous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Anthers 3; 0.3 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; orbicular; 0.5(-0.7) mm long; dark brown, or red.
Distribution
Europe: central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, middle Atlantic ocean, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern and north-central. North America: western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Eragrostideae. FTEA.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

Morphology General Habit
Loosely caespitose annual; culms up to 90 cm tall, erect or ascending, branched or unbranched, glabrous at the nodes, often with a ring of coalescent glands below the nodes; leaf sheaths glabrous, with or without scattered glandular pits; ligule a line of hairs; leaf lamina 4–15 cm × 2.5–8 mm, linear, flat, glabrous, usually with crateriform glands along the margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 4–30 cm long, ovate to oblong, fairly dense, contracted, stiffly branched, the spikelets evenly distributed on pedicels 1.5–2.5 mm long, these and the branchlets with scattered crateriform glands, the primary branches not in whorls, terminating in a fertile spikelet, glabrous or pubescent in the axils.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3–20 × 2–4 mm, narrowly ovate to narrowly oblong, rarely linear, laterally compressed, 5–60-flowered, the lemmas disarticulating from below upwards, the rhachilla persistent or breaking off above the glumes before all the lemmas have fallen; glumes subequal, 1.5–2.2 mm long, reaching to 3/4 or more the way along the adjacent lemmas, keeled, lanceolate to narrowly ovate in profile, often with one or two crateriform glands on the keel, subacute or acute at the apex; lemmas (1.7)2–2.8 mm long, keeled, ovate to elliptic in profile, chartaceous with distinct lateral nerves, diverging from the rhachilla at c. 45°, those in opposite rows not imbricate, the rhachilla just visible between them, pallid yellowish-green to leaden-grey, often with crateriform glands on the keel, obtuse at the apex; palea persistent, glabrous on the flanks, the keels slender, wingless, scabrid; anthers 3, 0.3–0.4 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis 0.4–0.6 mm long, usually subrotund, rarely oblong.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Vernacular
Agar, domar, doye, ramag (Somali) Agar, domar, doye, ramag (Somali)
Morphology General Habit
Annual up to 75 cm high; leaves flat or inrolled, sometimes with crateriform glands along the margins Annual up to 75 cm high; leaves flat or inrolled, sometimes with crateriform glands along the margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 5–15(–20) cm long, usually ± contracted with short pedicels, occasionally very contracted to a dense ovoid or cylindrical head, the branches and pedicels often bearing crateriform glands Panicle lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 5–15(–20) cm long, usually ± contracted with short pedicels, occasionally very contracted to a dense ovoid or cylindrical head, the branches and pedicels often bearing crateriform glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets oblong-ovate (linear when many-flowered), 4.5–15(–20) mm long, 8- to 30(–45)-flowered, shedding their lemmas from below upwards, the paleas persistent on the tough rhachilla, often the rhachilla fragile in the upper part, rarely breaking away entire soon after the lemmas have begun to fall; glumes subequal, lanceolate, 1.5–2.7 mm long, acute, often with crateriform glands along the nerve; lemmas elliptic-ovate in profile, papery, 2–2.8 mm long, scaberulous, subacute to obtuse; palea-keels scabrid; anthers 3, 0.3–0.5 mm long Spikelets oblong-ovate (linear when many-flowered), 4.5–15(–20) mm long, 8- to 30(–45)-flowered, shedding their lemmas from below upwards, the paleas persistent on the tough rhachilla, often the rhachilla fragile in the upper part, rarely breaking away entire soon after the lemmas have begun to fall; glumes subequal, lanceolate, 1.5–2.7 mm long, acute, often with crateriform glands along the nerve; lemmas elliptic-ovate in profile, papery, 2–2.8 mm long, scaberulous, subacute to obtuse; palea-keels scabrid; anthers 3, 0.3–0.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Grain usually subrotund, 0.4–0.6 mm in diam. Grain usually subrotund, 0.4–0.6 mm in diam.
Distribution
N1–3; C1, 2; S1–3 tropical and warm temperate Old World. N1–3; C1, 2; S1–3 tropical and warm temperate Old World.
Ecology
Altitude range 25–1200 m. Altitude range 25–1200 m.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Ghana, Greece, Gulf States, Hainan, Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Portugal, Qinghai, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Netherlands, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Primorye, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, St.Helena, Switzerland, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

English
Grey love grass, Stink eragrostis, Stink grass, Stink love grass

Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2013 Gairola, S. [1806], United Arab Emirates K000568935
Jul 22, 2006 Cairns Wicks, R. [s.n.], St. Helena K000300543
Feb 13, 1986 Ecuador K001467466
Feb 13, 1986 Peru K001467467
Sep 1, 1963 Chevalier, A. [24775], Burkina Faso K000392184
Aug 1, 1963 Leclercq, A. [43], Mali K000392190
Aug 1, 1963 Hagerup, O. [272], Mali K000392191
Aug 1, 1963 Davey, J.T. [41], Mali K000392189
Aug 1, 1963 Chevalier, A. [44], Mali K000392192
Aug 1, 1963 Leclercq, A. [43], Mali K000392188
Jan 1, 1963 Millen, H. [104], Nigeria K000366520 Unknown type material
Jan 9, 1918 Galapagos Is. K001467493
Pappi [6675], Eritrea K000366437 Unknown type material
Kuskoum [53], Sudan K000366439
Fund, S. P. ? [250], Sudan K000366440
Johnston, H. B. [1046], Sudan K000366441 Unknown type material
Homble [1052], Congo K000366489 Unknown type material
Willdenow, C.L. [1928] K000643425
Hinton, G.B. [5990], Guerrero K000465807
Farrow, R.A. [23], Mali K000392186
Willdenow [1925], India K000643345
Heath, J. [6], Mali K000392185
Rossetti [155], Mali K000392193
Nascimento, M.S.B. [405], Brazil K001101670
Kuschakewicz [s.n.] K000643397
Bent, J,Th. [s.n.], Sudan K000366438 Unknown type material
Pinto, G.C.P. [215/83], Brazil K001101669
Castellanos, A. [25362], Brazil K001102128
Leau, O.B. [11], Mali K000392187
[Semenov] [2] K000643398
Sorensen, Th. [4423], Thailand K000682465
Sorensen, Th. [5089], Thailand K000682464
Peru K000326026
Lehmann, F.C. [8742], Colombia K001467456
Venezuela K001467457
Ecuador K001467458
Ecuador K001467459
Ecuador K001467460
Ecuador K001467461
Ecuador K001467462
Ecuador K001467463
Ecuador K001467464
Ecuador K001467465
Peru K001467468
Peru K001467469
Peru K001467470
Peru K001467471
Peru K001467472
Peru K001467473
Peru K001467474
Peru K001467475
Peru K001467476
Peru K001467477
Bolivia K001467478
Bolivia K001467479
Bolivia K001467480
Bolivia K001467481
Bolivia K001467482
Bolivia K001467483
Bolivia K001467484
Bolivia K001467485
Galapagos Is. K001467486
Galapagos Is. K001467487
Galapagos Is. K001467488
Galapagos Is. K001467489
Galapagos Is. K001467490
Galapagos Is. K001467491
Galapagos Is. K001467492
Galapagos Is. K001467494
Galapagos Is. K001467495
Galapagos Is. K001467496
Galapagos Is. K001467497
Monod, T. [8098], Libya Eragrostis monodii K000907491 isotype

First published in Mitt. Naturwiss. Vereins Univ. Wien 5: 110 (1907)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
  • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D., Peterson, P.M. & Sánchez Vega, I. (2012). The genus Eragrostis (Poaceae : Chloridoideae) in northwestern South America (Colombia, Ecuador and Peru) : morphological and taxonomic studies: 1-195. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
  • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
  • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
  • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1957). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 1: 1-547. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Konspekt Flora Kavkaza 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 4, (1995) Author: by T. A. Cope [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467475
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467497
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467463
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467485
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467473
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467495
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467461
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467483
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467471
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467493
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467481
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467491
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467459
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467469
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467457
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467479
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467467
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467489
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467477
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467465
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467487
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467464
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467486
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467474
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467496
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467462
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467484
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467472
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467494
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467460
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467482
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467470
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467492
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467480
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467490
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467458
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467468
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467456
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467478
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467466
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467488
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K001467476
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew K000326026

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/