1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Eragrostis Wolf
      1. Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter

        This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. & E. Tropical Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 20–90 cm. high, erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, up to 30 cm. long and 4 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle lanceolate to broadly ovate, 10–40 cm. long, diffuse or contracted, with slender pedicels and long flexuous branches of which the lowest form a whorl, the axils hairy or glabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4–12-flowered, narrowly oblong, 5.5–9 mm. long, 1.5–2 mm. wide, straw-coloured to dark green or reddish, the florets at first appressed to the rhachilla, but diverging as the grain swells, remaining intact at maturity; glumes lanceolate, acuminate, unequal, the lower 1.2–2.5 mm. long and 0–1-nerved, the upper 1.7–3 mm.; lemmas oblong-elliptic, 2–2.7 mm. long, acute; palea scaberulous on the keels, eventually falling very tardily with the lemma; anthers 3, 0.3–0.6 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, 1–1.2 mm. long, turgid, white or reddish brown.
    Figures
    Fig. 60/11, p. 190.
    Habitat
    Weedy places; 750–2500 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 T4 U2 a staple cereal crop in Ethiopiaintroduced experimentally to other tropical countries, and sometimes found as an adventive
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 20-90 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 2-4 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open, or contracted; lanceolate, or ovate; 10-40 cm long. Primary panicle branches whorled at lower nodes. Panicle branches flexuous; glabrous in axils, or bearded in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5.5-9 mm long; 1.5-2 mm wide; persistent on plant.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 5.5-9 mm long; 1.5-2 mm wide; persistent on plant.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 1.2-2.5 mm long; 0.7-0.8 length of upper glume; 1-keeled; 0-1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1.7-3 mm long; 0.8-1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acuminate.
    Florets
    Fertile florets appressed to rhachilla, or divergent (at maturity). Fertile lemma elliptic, or oblong; 2-2.7 mm long; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.1-0.6 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; isodiametric; exposed between gaping lemma and palea at maturity; 1-1.2 mm long; pallid, or dark brown, or red.
    Distribution
    Europe: central and eastern. Africa: north, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern. South America: southern South America.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Loosely caespitose annual; culms up to 90 cm tall, usually erect, branched or unbranched, glabrous at the nodes, eglandular; leaf sheaths glabrous; ligule a line of hairs; leaf laminas 6–30 cm × 2–4 mm, linear, flat or involute, glabrous, eglandular.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 10–40 cm long, lanceolate to broadly ovate, diffuse or contracted, the spikelets evenly distributed on slender flexuous pedicels 4–9 mm long, the lowermost primary branches in a whorl, the remainder not so, terminating in a fertile spikelet, glabrous or thinly long-pilose in the axils, slender and flexuous, eglandular.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 5.5–9 × 1.5–2 mm, narrowly oblong, lightly laterally compressed, 4–12-flowered, the florets remaining intact for some time on the persistent rhachilla, very tardily deciduous; glumes unequal, reaching to about the middle of the adjacent lemmas, keeled, lanceolate in profile, glabrous, subacute to acute or acuminate at the apex, the inferior 1.2–2.5 mm long, the superior 1.7–3 mm long; lemmas 2–2.7 mm long, keeled, oblong-elliptic to oblong-ovate in profile, thinly membranous with distinct lateral nerves, at first appressed to the rhachilla and those in opposite rows with overlapping margins concealing the rhachilla, later diverging and exposing the rhachilla as the caryopsis swells, straw-coloured to dark green or reddish, glabrous, subacute to acute at the apex; palea very tardily deciduous with the lemma, glabrous on the flanks, the keels slender, wingless, scaberulous; anthers 3, 0.3–0.6 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis 1–1.2 mm long, oblong, turgid, white or reddish-brown, usually retained on the mature panicle.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Argentina Northwest, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil North, Cape Provinces, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, India, Italy, Jawa, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands, New Caledonia, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Réunion, Senegal, South Australia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Sudan, Switzerland, Tasmania, Ukraine, Victoria, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    McCallum Webster, M. [5089], United Kingdom K001082331
    Schimper [798], Ethiopia K000366409 Unknown type material
    Schimper [1970], Ethiopia K000366410
    Schimper [1927], Ethiopia K000366413 Unknown type material
    Schimper [962], Ethiopia K000366414 Unknown type material
    Schimper [963], Ethiopia K000366415 Unknown type material
    Schimper [1929], Ethiopia K000366416 Unknown type material
    Schimper [1929], Ethiopia K000366417 Unknown type material
    Schimper [961], Ethiopia K000366418 Unknown type material
    Dolanker [s.n.], Ethiopia K000366411 Unknown type material
    Swartz [s.n.], Ethiopia K000366412 Unknown type material

    First published in Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1918: 62 (1918)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 31(1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 30(1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 18(1958).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 20 (1947).
    • Ciferri in Atti Ist. Bot. Univ. Pavia, ser. 5, 2: 166 (1944).
    • Ciferri & Baldrati, Cereali dell’Africa Italiana II. Teff (1939).
    • Trotter in Bull. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1918: 62 (1918).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0