1. Family: Bignoniaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Spathodea P.Beauv.
      1. Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to Uganda and Angola.

    [FTEA]

    Bignoniaceae, Sally Bidgood, Bernard Verdcourt, Kaj Vollesen. Cobaeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Figures
    Fig. 7, p. 30.
    Type
    Type: Nigeria, about 12 km N of Chama, Palisot de Beauvois (G, holo)
    Habit
    Tree to 30 m tall, bark grey-brown, variously described as smooth, finely longitudinally fissured or rough.
    Branches
    Young branches smooth or slightly striate, lenticellate, glabrous to pubescent or tomentose.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets 4–8 pairs, narrowly elliptic to elliptic, (6–)8–15 × 2–7 cm, petiolules if present up to 0.4(–0.7) cm long, base rounded to acute and frequently unequal, margins entire or repand, apex acute to acuminate or cuspidate, upper surface glabrous or with a few scattered hairs mainly on the veins, lower surface glabrous or densely tomentose to tomentose, rarely with only a few scattered hairs, mainly on the veins and showing the dense reticulation, both surfaces with scattered peltate glands, usually with several large glands at the leaf base; terminal leaflet elliptic to broadly elliptic to obovate, base rounded to cuneate and often unequal, apex acute or acuminate (rarely lobed).
    Petiole
    Petiole 8–28(–30) cm long, sometimes with leafy pseudostipules at base, 1–1.5 × 1–1.5 cm.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 13–45-flowered.
    Peduncles
    Peduncle lenticellate, with prominent scars left by fallen pedicels, glabrous to densely tomentose.
    Bracts
    Bracts lanceolate, 1–2 × 0.2–4 cm. Bracts and bracteoles with scattered peltate glands ± 1 mm wide.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles two, at the base of each flower, sometimes elsewhere on the pedicel.
    Calyx
    Calyx (3–)3.5–6(–6.3) × (1.2–)2–3.6(–4) cm, tapering, acuminate and recurved at the apex, glabrous or with a few scattered curly hairs, or densely covered with very short velvety hairs or densely tomentose with multicellular hairs.
    Corolla
    Corolla red to orange tinged with yellow, rarely wholly yellow, glabrous on the outside, sparsely pubescent on the inside, with short crisped glandular and non-glandular multicellular hairs, more towards the base, 7.5–13.5 × (6.2–)7–12 cm; lobes broadly triangular to rounded, 1–3.5 × 2–3.5 cm, margin crinkly; tube 1.2–1.5 × 0.5–0.6 cm, enclosed within calyx.
    Stamens
    Stamens: anthers adnate to the corolla at the mouth of the tube, with the anticous equalling the length of the corolla, the posticous normally shorter.
    Sporangia
    Thecae divergent, 6–9 × ± 1 mm, glabrous.
    Disc
    Disk thick, lobed, annular. Ovary ± 5 mm long, either glabrous or villous with multicellular hairs.
    Style
    Style 5–7 cm long.
    Stigma
    Stigma 2-lobed, flattened, with lobes 5–7 × 2–3 mm, ± elliptic. Fruit held erect, slightly woody, fusiform, 15–23 × 2.5–4.3 cm, compressed, angular (like a flat–bottomed boat when dehisced), lenticellate, glabrous or densely tomentose when young, glabrescent when older.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed, 0.8–1 × 0.7–1.2 cm; wings hyaline, 1.5–2 × 2–4 cm.
    [FWTA]

    Bignoniaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A tree 20-70 ft. high
    Inflorescences
    Conspicuous flaming inflorescences, flowers scarlet or orange-red yellow margin
    Ecology
    Habitat mainly fringing forests.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Bangladesh, Cayman Is., Chad, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Fiji, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Malaya, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southwest, Puerto Rico, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Spathodea campanulata P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2008 Madulid et al. [7706], Philippines K000224837

    First published in Fl. Oware 1: 47 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
    • Burger, W. & Gentry, A.H. (2000). Bignoniaceae Fieldiana Botany New Series, n.s., 41: 77-160. Field Museum of Natural History.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Gentry, A. H. (1985). Bignoniaceae Flore du Gabon 27: 19-56. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv., ed. 2, 3: 248, t. 344
    • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 494.
    • Chev. Bot. 485
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 529
    • Fl. Oware. 1: 47, t. 27 (1805)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Meyer, J.-Y., Lavergne, C. & Hodel, D.R. (2008). Time bombs in gardens: invasive ornamental palms in tropical islands, with emphasis on French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean) and the Mascarenes (Indian Ocean) Palms; Journal of the International Palm Society 52: 23-35.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
    • Burger, W. & Gentry, A.H. (2000). Bignoniaceae Fieldiana Botany New Series, n.s., 41: 77-160. Field Museum of Natural History.
    • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Lebrun, J.P. & Stork, A.L. in Lebrun J.-P. & Stork, A.L. (1997). Bignoniaceae Énumération des Plants à Fleurs D'Afrique Tropicale 4: 456-461. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the vascular plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Gentry, A.H (1992). Bignoniaceae-Part II (Tribe Tecomeae) Flora Neotropica, Monograph 25(II): 1-370.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Gentry, A.H. (1984). Bignoniacées Flore du Cameroun 27: 26-61. Ministère de l'enseignement supérieur et de la recherche scientifique (Mesres), Yaoundé.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Gentry, A.H. (1982). Bignoniaceae Flora de Veracruz 24: 1-222. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bióticos, Xalapa, Veracruz.
    • Liben, L. (1977). Bignoniaceae Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi): 1-39. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1931). Bignoniaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa 2(1): 237-242.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • K.T.S.L.: 592, fig., map (1994)
    • Proc. XIIIth Plenary Meeting A.E.T.F.A.T. Malawi 1: 328, fig. 1 (1994).
    • C.F.A. 122. Bignoniac.: 19, t.4 (1993)
    • Fl. Neotropica 25(2): 118, fig. 36 (1992)
    • F.Z. 8(3): 62 (1988)
    • Fl. Gabon 27: 40 (1985)
    • Fl. Cameroon 27: 42 (1984)
    • Hamilton, Uganda Forest Trees: 203 (1981)
    • F.A.C., Bignoniaceae: 20 (1977)
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 386 (1963)
    • U.O.P.Z.: 451, fig. (1949)
    • F.T.A. 4(2): 529 (1906)
    • Cat. Welw. Afr. Pl. 4: 791 (1900)
    • J.B. 3: 332 (1865)
    • Fl. Owar. 1: 47, t. 27 (1805)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0