1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Senna Mill.
      1. Senna occidentalis (L.) Link

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Zambezian anthropic landscapes., Guinea-Congolian anthropic landscapes, Guinea-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone; anthropic landscapes., Somalia-Masai anthropic landscapes
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Arsenic Bean, Bicho, Brusca, Brusca Hembra, Brusca Macho, Cafe De Bonpland, Cafe De Campo, Cafe Negre, Cafetillo, Cafeton, Casse Fetide, Casse Puante, Chilinchile, Coffee Senna, Coffee Weed, Coffeeweed, Cornezuelo, Dandelion, Fedegosa, Fedegoso, Fedegoso-
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Erect herb, sometimes slightly woody, 0.15–2 m. high.
    Stem
    Stems subglabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to ± 20(–25) cm. long; petioles shortly above base with a large sessile squat hemispherical to ovoid or subglobose gland; rhachis eglandular. Leaflets in (3–)4–5(–6) pairs (in East Africa), ovate to ovate-elliptic or (sometimes) lanceolate, (2.5–)5–12 cm. long, rarely more, (1.5–)2–4 cm. wide, acute or acuminate at apex, glabrous except for ciliolate margins and inconspicuous scattered glands beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes from upper axils, very short, almost umbellate; peduncles 3–5 (very rarely and exceptionally to 8) mm. long (in East Africa).
    Bracts
    Bracts acute.
    Calyx
    Sepals normally glabrous outside.
    Corolla
    Petals yellow, obovate, 0.9–1.5 cm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10; 2 anticous rather large on long filaments, 4 smaller on shorter filaments, 3 (one of them anticous) much smaller.
    Fruits
    Pods slightly curved upwards or sometimes nearly straight, linear, (5–)8–12.5(–13) cm. long, 0.5–1.0 cm. wide, not or tardily dehiscent, compressed, brown, subglabrous, septate, many-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed, lying at right angles to long axis of pod, grey-brown, ovate-suborbicular, 4.5–5 × 3.75–4.5 mm.; testa minutely pimpled, with an elliptic areole ± 2.5 × 1.5 mm. on each face.
    Figures
    Fig. 14.
    Habitat
    Usually a weed of cultivation, roadsides and waste ground near villages and buildings; also recorded from grassland and lake-shores; 0–1740 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 pantropical, possibly originating in tropical America
    [FWTA]

    Caesalpiniaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A glabrous herb or undershrub, woody below, annual or of 2–3 years’ duration
    Ecology
    Found mainly near villages
    Note
    Much like the preceding (Cassia sophera).
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Environmental, Food and Drink, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Toxins, Weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Arkansas, Ascension, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Illinois, India, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Primorye, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Senna occidentalis (L.) Link appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 20, 2010 Höpflinger, F. [92], Bahamas K000661535
    Apr 7, 2008 Graham, J.G. [782], Peru K001041857
    Jan 18, 2007 Maciel, U.N. [78], Pará K000840962
    Jan 1, 1999 Vanni, R. [4321], Argentina K000556693
    Jan 1, 1999 Vanni, R. [4321], Argentina K000556692
    Aug 1, 1998 Zapfack, L. [771], Cameroon K000338524
    May 1, 1997 Stannard, B. [5147], Pernambuco K000840957
    Jan 1, 1997 Cornejo, X. [2155], Ecuador K001041850
    Jan 1, 1997 Hernandez, Luis [9], Venezuela K001041842
    Aug 1, 1995 Nascimento, M.S.B. [139], Piauí K000055533
    Aug 1, 1995 Nascimento, M.S.B. [139], Piauí K000055535
    Aug 1, 1994 Silva, G.P. [2444], Bahia K000055496
    Jun 24, 1994 Planchuelo, A.M. [Planchuelo 660], Argentina K000556691
    Jan 1, 1994 Mathias, Mildred E. [3622], Peru K000556681
    Jan 1, 1992 Pesha Baca, Victor [176], Peru K001041855
    Jan 1, 1988 Zarucchi, James , L. [5462], Colombia K001041835
    Nov 1, 1986 Coradin, L. [5835], Piauí K000055865
    Jul 1, 1984 Collares, J.E.R. [163], Paraíba K000055863
    May 1, 1984 Silva, S.B. [319], Piauí K000055861
    May 1, 1984 Assis, J.S. [357], Rio Grande do Norte K000055864
    Jan 1, 1984 Rabelo, B. [439], Amapá K000840961
    Mar 1, 1983 Lewis, G.P. [1160], Piauí K000055867
    Mar 1, 1983 Pearson, H.P.N. [16], Piauí K000055857
    Jan 1, 1983 Lewis, G.P. [788], Bahia K000055859
    Jan 1, 1983 Zarucchi, J.L. [3164], Amazonas K000840958
    Jun 7, 1982 Winder, J.A. [139], Rio de Janeiro K000840960
    Apr 1, 1981 Fevereiro, V.P.B. [M496], Paraíba K000055869
    Jan 1, 1981 Harley, R.M. [21105], Bahia K000055866
    Jan 1, 1981 Harley, R.M. [21105], Bahia K000055868
    Jan 1, 1979 Whiffin, T.P. [37], Brazil K000840940
    Jan 1, 1979 Ortiz, Felix [s.n.], Argentina K000556700
    Jan 1, 1978 Mori, S. [10088], Bahia K000055858
    Jan 1, 1978 Mori, S. [9290], Bahia K000055870
    Hinton, G.B. [11370], Mexico K000119643
    Hinton, G.B. [11600], Mexico K000119644
    Hinton, G.B. [9359], Mexico K000119645
    Hinton, G.B. [5677], Mexico K000119646
    Hinton, G.B. [4735], Mexico K000119647
    Hepper, F.N. [3791], Mali K000386715
    Philcox, D. [3798], Mato Grosso K000840931
    Philcox, D. [3858], Goiás K000840966
    unknown [479] K000417518
    Milliken, W. [2214], Roraima K000840963
    Rico, L. [1374], Bolivia K000295456
    Gilbert [n.1100] K000556699
    Burchell [4729], São Paulo K000840945
    Burchell [1022], Rio de Janeiro K000840946
    Burchell [1587], Rio de Janeiro K000840947
    Lindeman, J.C. [4489], Paraná K000840954
    Lehmann [8988], Colombia K001041832
    Pabst, G. [4078], Minas Gerais K000840936
    Hartweg [959], Colombia K001041837
    Vogel, E. [55], Nigeria K000417516
    Vogel, E. [55], Nigeria K000417517
    Fendler, A. [85], Panama K001041827
    Fendler, A. [s.n.], Panama K001041828
    Fendler, A. [324], Venezuela K001041843
    Fendler, A. [324], Venezuela K001041844
    Irwin, H.S. [6857], Mato Grosso K000840937
    Irwin, H.S. [9563], Brazil K000840955
    Irwin, H.S. [27339], Minas Gerais K000840956
    Ule, E. [5065], Amazonas K000840948
    Eiten, G. [10145], Goiás K000840938
    Eiten, G. [47690], Maranhão K000840950
    Anderson, W.R. [11242], Mato Grosso do Sul K000840959
    Pickersgill, B. [RU7283], Bahia K000055862
    Castellanos, A. [24877], Santa Catarina K000840951
    Bolland, G. [s.n.], Ceará K000055855
    Bolland, G. [s.n.], Ceará K000055860
    Schinini, A. [18836], Argentina K000556701
    Riedel [106], Brazil K001078058
    Krukoff, B.A. [1082], Pará K000840934
    Archer, W.A. [7667], Pará K000840935
    Fendler [959], Colombia K001041838
    Rugel, F. [106], Bahia K000055856
    Snow [170] K001041853
    Seemann [530], Panama K001041826
    Lowe, R.T. [s.n.] K000386718
    Howell, John Thomas [9033] K001041852
    Andre, Edouard Francois [205], Colombia K001041840
    Andre, Edouard Francois [1716], Colombia K001041841
    Madsen, J.E. [5555], Burkina Faso K000386711
    Madsen, J.E. [5555], Burkina Faso K000386712
    Woytkowski, Felix [#14], Peru K001041858
    Smith, Herbert H. [70], Colombia K001041834
    Venturi, S. [3860], Argentina K000556694
    Venturi, S. [6151], Argentina K000556695
    Kerr, J.G. [s.n.] K000556698
    Muller, F. [403], Santa Catarina K000840943
    Smith, D. [79], Mato Grosso do Sul K000840941
    Rusby [13], Venezuela K001041836
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000840932
    Colchester [2012], Venezuela K001041849
    And. [275], Galápagos K001041851
    Pickel, D.B. [259], Pernambuco K000055853
    Vasconcellos, D. [s.n.], Pernambuco K000055852
    Middleton ? [s.n.], Pernambuco K000055854
    Winder, J.A. [118], Espírito Santo K000840965
    Winder, J.A. [113], Minas Gerais K000840967
    Miller, O.O. [40], Venezuela K001041845
    Prance, G.T. [58547], Tocantins K000840953
    Usteri, P.A. [72], São Paulo K000840933
    Lewis, W.H. [1552], Panama K001041830
    Rosengurtt [9468], Rio Grande do Sul K000840944
    Rambo, B. [46660], Rio Grande do Sul K000840949
    Rambo, B. [40778], Rio Grande do Sul K000840952
    Cayola, L. [1284], Bolivia K001041863
    Traill, J.W.H. [170], Brazil K000840942
    Bourdy, G. [GB1942], Bolivia K001041861
    Triana, J. [s.n.], Colombia K001041831
    Davey, J.T. [4], Mali K000386716
    Wailly, M. de [5038], Mali K000386717
    Domingos, J. [s.n.] K000386721
    Bortoluzzi, R.L.C. [1230], Paraná K000840964
    Spruce, R.S. [255], Brazil K000840939
    Belshaw, Charles M. [3257], Peru K001041860
    Andre, Ed. [340], Colombia K001041839
    Allen, Cyril [311], Colombia K001041833
    Sandeman, Christopher [214], Peru K001041856
    s.coll. [s.n.], Ecuador K001041829
    s.coll. [11563], Venezuela K001041847
    s.coll. [s.n.], Venezuela K001041848
    Bond, Francis E. [137], Venezuela K001041846
    Blasido, E. [84], Peru K001041854
    Ruiz, Juan [1325], Peru K001041859
    Roca, A. [AR0625], Bolivia K001041862
    Brooke, Fasceny [78], Bolivia K001041864
    Mroginski, L. [626], Argentina K000556690
    Petersen, Troels Myndel [1078], Argentina K000556697
    Vega, E. [893], Argentina K000556696

    First published in Handbuch 2: 140 (1831)

    Accepted by

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    • Souza, V.C. & al. (2016). Flora dos Estados de Goiás e Tocantins 48: 1-147. Universidade federal de Goiás.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
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    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Filimban, F.Z. & al. (2014). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXX Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 117-132.
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    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
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    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
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    • Brummitt, R.K., Chikuni, A.C., Lock, J.M. & Polhill, R.M. (2007). 61. Leguminosae Subfamily Caesalpinioideae Flora Zambesiaca 3(2): 1-218. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
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    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
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    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
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    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Filimban, F.Z. & al. (2014). Studies in the flora of Arabia: XXX Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 117-132.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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