1. Family: Salicaceae Mirb.
    1. Genus: Oncoba Forssk.
      1. Oncoba spinosa Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

    [FWTA]

    Flacourtiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    A shrub, or tree up to 40 ft. high, with thorny stem and branches
    Flowers
    Flowers as above (Oncoba brachyanthera)
    Fruits
    Fruit hard and glossy.
    [FTEA]

    Flacourtiaceae, H. Sleumer (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, up to 10 m. tall, much branched, with bushy crown.
    Branches
    Branches and branchlets with numerous lenticels and straight sharp axillary spines up to 7 cm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades usually elliptic or ovate-elliptic, apex acuminate, base cuneate, ± papyraceous, rarely subcoriaceous, often wine red when young, glabrous, margin finely serrate or crenate-serrate (more coarsely so in coppice shoots), 3.5–14 cm. long, 2–7 cm. broad; lateral nerves 6–8(–10) pairs, tertiary ones dense and visibly reticulated on both faces; petiole 0.6–1 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, white, beautiful, on a peduncle 1–2 cm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals broadly ovate to suborbicular, greenish dorsally, white inside, ± persistent and finally reflexed, 1–1.5 cm. long, 0.8–1.2 cm. broad.
    Corolla
    Petals obovate-cuneate, pure white in anthesis (often pinkish in bud or when ageing), outer ones 2.5–3.5 cm. long and 1.5–2 cm. broad, inner ones narrower.
    Stamens
    Stamens 200–300, ± cohering in 5 bundles; anthers linear to linear-oblong, 2–3 mm.
    Pistil
    Ovary subglobose; style 6–10 mm. long, with a circle of sessile subglobose (± connate) stigma-rays on top.
    Fruits
    Fruit round, 5(–6) cm. in diameter, smooth or marked with a number of slight longitudinal rib-like markings, with a hard shell-like red-brown and glossy pericarp.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, blackish brown, glabrous, 6–7 mm. long, 3–4 mm. broad.
    Figures
    Fig. 6/1–8.
    Habitat
    Forest edges, riverine forest and bushland, Brachystegia woodland; up to 1800 m.
    Distribution
    widespread in tropical Africa K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 U2
    [FZ]

    Flacourtiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Glabrous shrub or small tree up to c. 5 m. tall; branches with pale lenticels and very sharp, spreading, axillary spines up to 5 cm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 3.5–12 x 2–10 cm., usually rather membranous, elliptic, ovate-elliptic or oblong-elliptic, acuminate at the apex, abruptly cuneate at the base, serrate or serrate-crenate except near the base or serrations almost obsolete, with 7–11 pairs of lateral nerves, venation reticulate but not very conspicuous; petiole up to 8 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers scented, solitary and terminal or lateral on short, axillary shoots.
    Calyx
    Calyx globose in bud with 4 very concave, imbricate, persistent lobes shortly united at the base; lobes c. 1.5 x 1.2 cm., rounded at the apex and rather membranous at the margins.
    Corolla
    Petals white, 8–10, c. twice the size of the calyx-lobes, imbricate, oblong-spathulate, rounded at the apex.
    Stamens
    Anthers yellow, very numerous, 1.75 mm. long, linear with the connective produced as a minute narrowly triangular tip; filaments up to 6 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary globose with a style as long as the stamens; stigma 4 mm. in diam., peltate or somewhat funnel-shaped and lobulate at the margins.
    Fruits
    Fruit dark green or finally brown, c. 5 cm. in diam., globose, smooth, with a hard shell marked with c. 8 rather faint longitudinal lines, the old calyx persistent at the base, many-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 6 x 4 mm., the shape of a somewhat flattened apple pip, with a shiny, rich brown testa.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Florida

    Oncoba spinosa Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7256], Cameroon K000008991
    Andrews, F.W. [1578], Sudan 4938.000
    Deistel, H. [90], Cameroon K000094650
    Brunt, M.A. [237], Cameroon K000105918

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 103 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Flacourtiaceae: 1-68.
    • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bamps, P. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Flacourtiaceae (1): 1-61. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 3: 8.
    • Chev. Bot. 37
    • —F.T.A. 1: 115
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Streliztia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2001). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. I Boissiera 57: 1-396.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae) Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Flacourtiaceae: 1-68.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bamps, P. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Flacourtiaceae (1): 1-61. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bamps in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Flacourt.: 16, fig. 1/A (1968).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 266 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 227 (1961).
    • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 275, t. 46/B (1960).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 149 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 234 (1949).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony p. 21 (1936).
    • Sim, For. Fl. Port. E. Afr.: 12, t. 2/B (1909).
    • Engl, in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 277 (1895).
    • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 115 (1868), incl. var. angolensis Oliv.
    • Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: CXIII, 103 (1775).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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