1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Calamagrostis Adans.
      1. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P.Beauv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Subarctic America to U.S.A.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms 40-180 cm long. Culm-internodes smooth. Lateral branches lacking. Leaf-sheaths smooth, or antrorsely scabrous; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-10 mm long; lacerate. Collar glabrous, or pubescent. Leaf-blades flat, or involute; 3-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; lanceolate, or ovate; dense, or loose; 15-25 cm long. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.5-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded. Floret callus hairs 0.75-1 length of lemma.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.5-6 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded. Floret callus hairs 0.75-1 length of lemma.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 2.5-6 mm long; 0.75-1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface scabrous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 2.5-6 mm long; 1-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface scabrous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; 2.5-6 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 3 -awned. Principal lemma awn dorsal; arising 0.4-0.8 way up back of lemma; 2-6 mm long overall. Lateral lemma awns arising on apex of lobes; 0.2-1 mm long. Palea 0.75-0.8 length of lemma; hyaline; 2 -veined. Palea keels scaberulous. Rhachilla extension 0.2-1.3 mm long; pilose.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 3; 1-1.7 mm long. Stigmas 2.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, and southeast USA.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Fl Pac NW 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Greenland, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Labrador, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    West Himalaya

    Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Pursh, F.T. [s.n.], Northern America K000838366
    Pursh, F.T. [s.n.], Northern America K000838367
    Torrey, J. [s.n.] Calamagrostis cinnoides K000838365
    Nuttall, T. [s.n.], USA Calamagrostis cinnoides K000838363
    Schweinitz, L.D.von. [s.n.], Northern America Calamagrostis cinnoides K000838364

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 15, 157 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Ibrahim, K.M. & Peterson, P.M. (2014). Grasses of Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 99: 1-128.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0