1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Stachytarpheta Vahl
      1. Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type from French Guiana.
    General
    A perennial herb or much branched subshrub, 0.4–1.5(2.5) m high, woody at the base, glabrous or shortly pubescent and with a few longer hairs
    Stem
    Stem and branches subterete, hispid and scattered pilose mainly on the young parts, glabrescent on older parts
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, usually blackish on drying; lamina 2–8(9) × 1.6–3.5(4.5) cm, ovate to elliptic, obtuse or rounded to subacute at the apex, attenuate and decurrent into the petiole or ± rounded and abruptly narrowed and narrowly cuneate at the base, crenate-serrate on the margin with teeth usually longer than deep, ± scabridulous on upper surface, glabrous or hairy on the nerves beneath, sometimes with some peltate glands near the base; petiole 1–1.5 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Spikes slender, 20–45 cm long with rhachis up to 3.5 mm thick in fruit, sparsely but distinctly pubescent to almost glabrous; bracts 3.5–5 × 0.5–1 mm, less than half as wide as the fruiting calyx, narrowly triangular and tapering to a subulate apex, ± equalling or slightly shorter than the fruiting calyx, very narrowly scarious and ± ciliate on the margin, thickened at the base
    Calyx
    Calyx 4–5 mm long, tubular, ellipsoid with 1–3 peltate glands near the apex, 4-toothed with the teeth subequal Fruiting calyx somewhat embedded in the furrows of the rhachis
    Corolla
    Corolla pale blue, pale lilac or white; tube 4–6 mm long, about equalling the calyx or exserted up to 2 mm; limb 4–7 mm in diameter, the lobes 1.5–2 mm long
    Style
    Style exserted 1.5–2.5 mm from the calyx after the fall of the corolla
    Fruits
    Mericarps 3–4 mm long, nearly black at maturity.
    Ecology
    Grassland, road sides and disturbed areas; 10–1200 m.
    Note
    Moldenke in Fifth Summ. Verbenaceae: 629, 1971, considered S. dichotoma (Ruiz & Pavon) Vahl to be synonymous with S. cayennensis , but in 1983 Moldenke & A. Moldenke (op. cit.: 261–263) treated these taxa as separate species, commenting (op. cit. 264, 1983) that S. dichotoma may be a variety of S. cayennensis .   Examination of the types of S. dichotoma (Peru, Ruiz & Pavon, MA) and of S. cayennensis (French Guiana, Leblond 356, G) confirms that the plants are indeed synonymous, the first being a plant with larger leaves.
    Distribution
    District code: ZIM E, MOZ MS. Widespread and native in tropical America, now widely naturalized throughout the tropics. Mozambique Zimbabwe

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Assam, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Central African Repu, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Gabon, India, Ivory Coast, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Liberia, Malaya, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Togo, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Projeto Flora Cristalino [361], Mato Grosso K000578446
    Mar 1, 2007 Rico, L. [1439], Bolivia K000295327
    Oct 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11484], Cameroon K000338941
    Jan 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [401], Cameroon K000213072
    Jan 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [701], Cameroon K000213073
    May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [10186], Cameroon K000107550
    May 1, 2001 Cheek, M. [9534], Cameroon K000107552
    Deighton, F.C. [4291], Sierra Leone 16938.000
    Schreiter [26/1347], Argentina K000487016 isotype

    First published in Enum. Pl. Obs. 1: 208 (1804)

    Accepted by

    • Gonçales Salimenas, F.R. & al. (2016). Flora dos estados de Goiás e Tocantins 47: 1-157. Universidade Federal de Goiás.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Berry, P.E., Yatskievych, K. & Holst, B.K. (eds.) in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (2005). Rutaceae-Zygophyllaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 9: 1-608. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 18 (1992).  TAB. 8 .
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 261 (1983).
    • Adams, Fl. Pl. Jamaica: 632 (1972).
    • Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr., Fl. Java 2 : 598 (1965).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2 : 434, fig. 305 G–L (1963).
    • Leon & Alain, Fl. Cuba 4 : 296 (1957).
    • Kew Bull. 5 : 223, fig. C (1950).
    • Blumea 5 : 69 (1942).
    • Lilloa 4 : 299 (1939).
    • Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 40 : 2 (1929).
    • Urban, Symb. Antill. 4 : 533 (1911).
    • Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 4 , 3a: 154 (1895).
    • Martius, Fl. Bras. 9 : 199 (1851), as “ Stachytarpha ”.
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 11 : 562 (1847)
    • Schauer op. cit.: 561 (1847), as “ Stachytarpha ” pro parte?
    • Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 4 : 5 (1845).
    • Persoon, Syn. Pl. 2 : 140 (1806), as “ cajanensis ”.
    • Persoon, op. cit.: 139 (1806).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Qiu, H.X., Chen, B.H. & Zeng, F.Y. (2006). Noteworthy taxa from Southern China Guihaia 26: 1-4.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/