1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Arundinaria Michx.
      1. Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Central & SE. U.S.A.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; leptomorph; with peripheral air canals. Culms erect; 200-500(-800) cm long; woody. Culm-internodes similar in length; channelled; thin-walled. Culm-nodes glabrous, or pubescent. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement three, or several; with subequal branches; thinner than stem. Culm-sheaths deciduous; without auricles. Leaf-sheath oral hairs setose. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5-1 mm long. Collar pubescent. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; lanceolate; 15-25 cm long; 20-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence comprising only a few spikelets; comprising 1-3 fertile spikelets. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 40-70 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes pubescent.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 6-12 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 40-70 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes pubescent.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two, or several; 1-2 empty glumes; persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.3-0.7 length of upper glume; chartaceous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 15-25 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 7-9 -veined. Lemma surface puberulous; hairy below. Lemma apex attenuate; muticous, or mucronate, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 0-5 mm long overall. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels scabrous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 3. Anthers 3. Stigmas 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; apex unappendaged.
    Distribution
    North America: north-central USA, northeast USA, south-central USA, and southeast USA.
    Reference
    Bambuseae. Gould.
    Diagnostic
    Branches with 0-1 compressed basal internodes.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia

    Introduced into:

    Kansas, Pennsylvania

    Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nuttall [s.n.] K000872667
    Dr. Torrey [s.n.], Georgia (USA) K000872666

    First published in Cat. Pl. Amer. Sept.: 14 (1813)

    Accepted by

    • Krayesky, D.M. & Chmielewski, J.G. (2014). Arundinaria gigantea: New to Pennsylvania Rhodora. Journal of the New England Botanical Club 116: 228-231.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Krayesky, D.M. & Chmielewski, J.G. (2014). Arundinaria gigantea: New to Pennsylvania Rhodora. Journal of the New England Botanical Club 116: 228-231.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0