1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cordia L.
      1. Cordia africana Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula, Comoros, Madagascar.

    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Small to medium sized deciduous tree, up to 24 m. high; trunk usually forking a few meters from the base; bark grey to dark brown, shallow fissured; crown spreading, dome-shaped; branchlets glabrous, powdery or pubescent, sometimes hairy.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or sometimes almost ternate; petiole (1.5)2.5–10.5 cm. long, canaliculate, glabrous or tawny-powdery and sometimes also tawny-pubescent; lamina 6–21 x 4.0–16.5 cm., ovate or broadly ovate, sometimes subcircular or elliptic, glabrous or on the youngest leaves scabrous or minutely scaly above, powdery and often tawny-hairy on the nerves and veins below, usually rounded and suddenly shortly acuminate, sometimes acute at the apex, subacute to cordate and often asymmetrical at the base, with entire or shallowly crenate margins, usually stiffly coriaceous, with 5–7 secondary nerves on each side of the midrib, tertiary nerves perpendicular to the secondary ones, both prominent below.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes arranged in terminal leafy usually ample panicles; rhachis and branches tawny or brown, minutely tomentose.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, on pedicels up to 1 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 7–9 mm. long and 4–7 mm. wide at the mouth, tubular, with 10–12 well marked ridges, coriaceous, minutely tomentose outside, glabrous inside, opening by an operculum and later splitting into 3–5 teeth, sometimes becoming bilabiate.
    Corolla
    Corolla 17–21(24) mm. long, funnel-shaped, white; tube 15–19(22) mm. long; lobes 1.5–3.0 x 10–13(15) mm., retuse and with a pubescent mucron c. 1 mm. long, margin undulate.
    Stamens
    Stamens enclosed, inserted at 3–5 mm. from the base of the corolla; anthers 2.0–2.5 mm. long; filaments 7–10 mm. long, slender, with a few pellucid hairs at the base.
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 2.0 x 1.5 mm., ovoid, glabrous; style 13–18 mm. long, first forked at 7–12 mm. from the base, stigmatic branches c. 1.5 mm. long, more or less clavate.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 12 x 8 mm., ovoid, ellipsoid or obovoid, apiculate, glabrous, dark brown, surrounded at base by the widened cup-shaped calyx; pyrene subquadrangular in cross section.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–2, very rarely 3–4.
    [FWTA]

    Boraginaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree up to 25 ft. high
    Leaves
    Broad leaves strongly-nerved beneath
    Flowers
    Conspicuous funnel-shaped white flowers in paniculate cymes
    Fruits
    Yellow succulent fruits 1/3-1/2 in. in diam.
    Note
    Often planted.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Shrub or usually a small tree to about 10 m. but occasionally much taller and attaining 18 or even 30 m.; bole usually curved or crooked, 3–8(–12) m. high; bark dark to pale brown, rough and fibrous, peeling, longitudinally fissured; inner bark white turning black; slash yellow or white turning green, grey or brownish; crown spreading, rounded or umbrella-like.
    Stem
    Young stems brown-velvety tomentose and with longer hairs but later ± glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades alternate, ovate, elliptic or almost round, 7.5–17.5(–30) cm. long, 3.5–9(–22.5) cm. wide, rounded to acuminate at the apex, rounded to cordate or rarely cuneate at the base, ± thick, discolorous, glabrous to scabrid above, shortly tomentellous and with longer pubescence on the raised reticulate venation beneath to very thickly velvety (‘ C. holstii ’) or eventually ± glabrous save for long hairs on the venation; petiole 1.3–13 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite, sweetly scented, sessile, hairy, having much the appearance of artificial flowers made of crinkly paper, massed in compact conspicuous panicles of scorpioid cymes up to 14 × 14 cm., shorter than the leaves.
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular-campanulate, (5–)7–9 mm. long, 4–6 mm. wide at the throat, conspicuously 10-ribbed, dark-brown tomentose, irregularly 4–5-toothed or sometimes ± 2-lipped.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, funnel- shaped, spreading at the apex, (1.4–)2–2.5 cm. long and about as wide; tube mostly 1.8–2.2 cm. long and lobes usually 2–3 mm. long, 1.1 cm. wide, retuse, strongly folded, crenellate, sparsely pubescent outside, the median nerves with a short hairy mucro.
    Stamens
    Stamens included; anthers blackening; filaments 8–10 mm. long.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid, 2–3 mm. long, 1.5–1.8 mm. wide, glabrous; style 1.2–2 cm. long, divided 0.7–1.4 cm. from the base; stigmas subulate, 1–2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruits yellow, subglobose or ovoid, 1–1.2 cm. long, 6–10 mm. wide, with sweet mucilaginous flesh, glabrous, contained in the slightly accrescent cupuliform still 10-lobed calyx ± 1.1 cm. wide; endocarp subquadrangular; seeds 2–4.
    Figures
    Figs. 5/11, 12, p. 24; 8, p. 32.
    Habitat
    Primary forest edges, secondary forest, gallery forest; also in grassland with scattered trees, Combretum, Albizia, etc.; 450–2100 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 U2 Guinée to Ethiopia and Sudan thence to Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa (N. Transvaal) and Angola, also in tropical Arabiacultivated in India, New Caledonia and elsewhere in tropical botanic gardens, etc.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius, Réunion

    Cordia africana Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 Luke, Q. et al. [11359], Tanzania K000450152
    Jul 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7504], Cameroon K000008644
    Jul 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3334], Cameroon K000338917
    Jan 1, 1988 Holst, C. [9068], Tanzania K000418665 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1988 Volkens, G. [249], Tanzania K000418667 isosyntype
    Jan 1, 1969 Holst, C. [2347], Tanzania K000418666 isosyntype
    Aug 22, 1937 Dawe, M.J. [798], Uganda Cordia abyssinica K000418668 lectotype

    First published in Tabl. Encycl. 1: 420 (1792)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Taton, A. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Boraginaceae: 1-82. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.

    Not accepted by

    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort. [Cited as Cordia myxa.]
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux. [Cited as Cordia myxa.]

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Tabl. Encycl. Ill. 1: 420 (1792).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 61 (1990).
    • Warfa in Taxon 37: 961, fig. 1 (1988).
    • Warfa, Acta Univ. Upsal. 174, I: 1 (1988)
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 3: 259, fig. 84/1 (1985).
    • Geerling, Guide Terr. Lign. Sah. Soud.-Guin.: 83, t. 17/1 (1982).
    • Heine in Fl. Nouv.-Caléd. 7: 106 (1976).
    • Taton, Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Borag.: 4, map 1 (1971).
    • Heine in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 320, fig. 276 (1963).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 766 (1961).
    • Lam., Tab. Encycl. 1: 420 (1792).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0