1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cordia L.
      1. Cordia monoica Roxb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula, India, Sri Lanka.

    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Much-branched spreading shrub or small tree branched from the base, 1.5–8(–15) m. tall; crown usually spreading; bark rather rough, grey, but sometimes smooth and flaking in long strips (see note); branches longitudinally striate, with ± ferruginous indumentum and often velvety when young, later glabrescent, with short internodes and prominent reniform or semicircular petiole-scars.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate; blades elliptic, ovate, obovate or ± rounded, (1–)2.5–8(–11 or –13 on coppice) cm. long, (1–)2–9 cm. wide, rounded, apiculate or often emarginate at the apex, less often acute, cuneate to rounded at the base, entire, denticulate or rarely distinctly repand-dentate, rugose and mostly very scabrid above with minute tubercle-based hairs together with sparse branched hairs, densely ± softly white pubescent beneath; venation reticulate beneath, often reddish; petiole (0.5–)1.2–5 cm. long, brownish tomentose.
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant, hermaphrodite or unisexual in terminal or axillary panicles of cymes 2–6 cm. long, few-flowered, the axes fulvous-tomentose; pedicels articulate at the apex, 0.2–0.8(–3) mm. long. Male:filaments either 6 mm. long or 2–3 mm. long in what appears to be different forms; corolla and stamens 5(–6)-merous; gynoecium absent. Female and hermaphrodite :filaments 2–3 mm. long; corolla 4–5-merous; ovary ovoid, 3–3.5(–5) mm. long, 1.5–1.8 mm. wide, glabrous; style exserted, 6–10 mm. long; stigmatic branches 3–5 mm. long, recurved.
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular-campanulate, 6–8.5 mm. long, 5–8 mm. wide, tomentose outside with simple and branched hairs, glabrous or sparsely pubescent inside, 3–5-lobed or sometimes ± 2-lipped or irregularly torn.
    Corolla
    Corolla greenish white to pale yellow, 1–1.2 cm. wide; tube cylindric, 4–7 mm. long; lobes 3–5, oblong to narrowly obovate, 3.5–5.5(–6.5) mm. long, 1–2.5 mm. wide, spreading.
    Male
    Male:filaments either 6 mm. long or 2–3 mm. long in what appears to be different forms; corolla and stamens 5(–6)-merous; gynoecium absent.
    Female and Hermaphrodite
    Female and hermaphrodite :filaments 2–3 mm. long; corolla 4–5-merous; ovary ovoid, 3–3.5(–5) mm. long, 1.5–1.8 mm. wide, glabrous; style exserted, 6–10 mm. long; stigmatic branches 3–5 mm. long, recurved.
    Fruits
    Fruits yellow or orange but also reported to be olive-black to black, ovoid or obovoid, 0.9–2 cm. long, 0.6–1.2 cm. wide, sitting in the persistent 1 cm. wide accrescent calyx, 3–4-locular but usually 1-seeded by abortion.
    Figures
    Fig. 4/2–4.
    Habitat
    Very catholic, from quite wet evergreen forest to Acacia woodland, Acacia-Commiphora bushland and Acacia-Euphorbia thicket in grassland, coastal thicket, etc., often riverine; 0–1825 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T7
    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree up to 5(7) m. high; branchlets angular, usually rough and minutely fulvous-tomentose when young with stellate, ± branched or simple hairs, glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate; petiole 0.5–2.5(3.5) cm. long, flat or slightly canaliculate above; lamina 3–10(14) x 2–8(10) cm., ovate, obovate or subcircular, sometimes elliptic, rough and sometimes also with some stellate or variously branched hairs above, densely pubescent to rough and often with stellate or branched hairs mainly on the nerves below, obtuse or rounded and sometimes shortly acuminate at apex, obtuse to truncate, rarely acute at base, with subentire, crenate to crenate-serrate margins, leathery and with 3–5 secondary nerves on each side of the midrib, the lower ones basal or nearly so and stronger than the other.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes arranged in usually few-flowered terminal or very rarely axillary panicles 1.5–5(7) cm. long; rhachis and branches minutely fulvous-tomentose.
    Flowers
    Flowers polygamous on pedicels up to 2 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–8 mm. long, narrowly campanulate or infundibuliform, irregularly 3–5-toothed, rough to minutely fulvous-tomentose outside, sparsely pubescent to glabrous inside.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow, glabrous; tube 4–7 mm. long, cylindrical; lobes (4)5(6), 4–6(7) x 1 -2 mm., oblong to narrowly obovate, rounded at apex, reflexed.
    Stamens
    Stamens (or staminodes) as many as the corolla lobes, inserted at the corolla-throat; filaments 1.5–4.0 mm. long, slender, glabrous or with a few long hairs at the base; anthers 1.5–2.0 mm. long on the male flowers and c. 1 mm. long on the female and male ones, but on the latter ones often almost sterile.
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 2 mm. long, ovoid-conical, glabrous, on the male flowers vestigial; style 7–9 mm. in total length, first-forked at 1.5–3.5 mm. and with stigmatic branches 2.5–5.0 mm. long, linear.
    Fruits
    Fruit 15–22 x 10–15 mm., ovoid or ellipsoid, apiculate, glabrous, orange when ripe, surrounded at the lower third by the widely enlarged campanulate calyx; mesocarp fleshy; pyrene c. 10 x 7 mm., usually deeply cleft at the apex, ± circular in cut across, 1–3-seeded.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Mauritius

    Cordia monoica Roxb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 19, 2008 Crawford, F. [113], Namibia K000450290
    Jan 1, 1988 Schimper [1218], Ethiopia K000418680 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1988 Schimper, W. [2180], Ethiopia K000418678 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1988 Schimper, W. [s.n.], Ethiopia K000418679 syntype
    Jan 1, 1916 Teijsmann, J.E. [s.n.], Jawa K000998041
    Brummitt, R.K. [18529], Malawi K000282804
    Ash [1211], Ethiopia Cordia ovalis 35797.000
    Ash [326], Ethiopia Cordia ovalis 6049.333
    Ash [305], Ethiopia Cordia ovalis 6049.399
    Gomes e Sousa, A. [4550], Mozambique Cordia ovalis 7051.000
    Heyne, B. [Cat. no. 891] Cordia polygama K001110181
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 891] Cordia polygama K001110177
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 891] Cordia polygama K001110178
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 891], India Cordia polygama K001110179
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 891], India Cordia polygama K001110180
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 891] Cordia polygama K001110182

    First published in Pl. Coromandel 1: 43 (1796)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 65 (1990).
    • Verdc. in Kew Bulletin 44: 166 (1989).
    • Warfa, Acta Univ. Upsal. 174, fig. 5/A, 6, 7/A (1988).
    • K. Mathew, Fl. Tamilnadu Carnatic 3: 999 (1983).
    • K. Mathew, Fl. Tamilnadu Carnatic 1: 268 (1981)
    • C.B. Cl. in Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 137 (1883).
    • DC., Prodr. 9: 479 (1845).
    • Roxb., Fl. Indica, ed Carey 2: 334 (1824).
    • Roxb., Pl. Coromandel 1: 43, t. 58 (1796)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0