1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cynoglossum L.
      1. Cynoglossum amplifolium Hochst. ex A.DC.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Perennial herb or subshrub 0.3–1.8 m. tall, with thick tuberous root to 45 cm. long; stems annual, erect, at first densely velvety adpressed hairy but sometimes becoming almost glabrous.
    Leaves
    Radical and lower stem-leaves elliptic-ovate to ovate, 10–27 cm. long, 3.5–17 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, rounded, cuneate or subcordate at the base, short-to long-decurrent into the 9–42 cm. long petiole, sparsely hairy on both faces; stem-leaves sessile or decurrent and shortly petiolate, elliptic-lanceolate to ovate, 2–18 cm. long, 1.6–10 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, rounded at the base, above ± subscabrid to less often distinctly scabrid with tubercle-based hairs surrounded by cystoliths, ± velvety hairy beneath, becoming almost glabrous or with sparse hairs on the raised and reticulate venation; petiole 0–2 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and axillary, the cymes very short, ± 1 cm. long at first, rapidly elongating to 6–12 cm. in fruit; pedicels 2–5(–10) mm. long, lengthening and reflexing in fruit to 1–2.5(–3.5) cm.; all axes adpressed pubescent to velvety, sometimes yellowish in dry state.
    Calyx
    Sepals broadly elliptic to ovate, 1.5–2.5(–4) mm. long, 1.5–1.7(–3.5) mm. wide, ± acute, accrescent to 5 × 4.5 mm. in fruit, pubescent and ciliate outside, glabrous inside.
    Corolla
    Corolla light to dark blue, sometimes reddish purple at first and persistently at throat; tube 1.3–2.6 mm. long; lobes broadly elliptic to round or oblate, 1.3–2.5(–4) mm. long, 1.8–3.2(–5) mm. wide; throat-bosses ± square, papillate; filaments 0.2–0.3 mm. long; anthers 0.7–1 mm. long.
    Ovary
    Ovary ± 1 mm. long; style 0.5–1.2 mm. long; stigma terminal, globose, bilobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit 0.8–1.5 cm. wide; nutlets cushion-shaped, depressed, 5–6 mm. wide, the external ± convex face uniformly covered all over with short stout conic glochidia or only around the margins and along a median line.
    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    A rhizomatous perennial herb 0.8–1.8(3.5) m. high, much branched, with shortly and retrorsely hispid often reddish annual stems.
    Leaves
    Inferior leaves petiolate, the superior ones sessile; petiole up to 13(42) cm. long, with sheathing base; lamina of the inferior leaves 12–20 x 7–12 cm., becoming progressively smaller to the apex, ovate or less often elliptic, shortly and sparsely hispid on both surfaces, acute at apex and sometimes apiculate, obtuse to subcordate at base and suddenly decurrent on the petiole.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of short racemes arranged in terminal bracteate panicles; bracts ovate to lanceolate, acute.
    Flowers
    Flowers with pedicels 2–4 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx appressed-pubescent outside, glabrous inside; lobes 1.0–2.5 x 1.2–1.7 mm., elliptic to very widely ovate, subacute to rounded at apex.
    Corolla
    Corolla usually blue, often with reddish throat, sometimes the whole whitish; tube 1.4–1.6 mm. long, slightly infundibuliform; limb 4–6 mm. in diam.; lobes 1.4–2.4 x 1.0–2.6 mm., very widely ovate to depressed-ovate, obtuse, much veined.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at 0.6–1.0 mm. from the base of the corolla tube; anthers 0.6–0.7 mm. long, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, subcordate at base; filaments 0.3–0.5 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 mm. in diam.; style overlapping the ovary by 0.3–0.6 mm.; stigma globulose, terminal.
    Fruits
    Fruits 10–12 mm. in diam., on usually reflexed pedicels up to 17 mm. long; nutlets 5–6 mm. in diam., free from the style, with the outer surface convex and ± uniformly covered with 0.5–0.6 mm. long glochids.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Cynoglossum amplifolium Hochst. ex A.DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1966 Adams, C.D. [GC 11308], Cameroon K000029819
    Jan 1, 1961 Boughey, A.S. [10699], Cameroon K000029826
    Jan 1, 1958 Maitland, T.D. [966], Cameroon K000029833
    Jan 1, 1958 Johnston, H.H. [10], Cameroon K000029822
    Jan 1, 1958 Johnston, H.H. [57], Cameroon K000029823
    Boughey, A.S. [10654], Cameroon K000029820
    Boughey, A.S. [6773], Cameroon K000029821
    Schimper [564], Ethiopia K000418929
    Schimper [564], Ethiopia K000418930
    Schimper [564], Ethiopia K000418931
    Schimper [1538], Ethiopia K000418932
    Breteler, F.J. [MC 109], Cameroon K000029817
    Breteler, F.J. [MC 109], Cameroon K000029818
    Satabie, B. [268], Cameroon K000029809
    Satabie, B. [88], Cameroon K000029813
    Satabie, B. [88], Cameroon K000029814

    First published in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 10: 149 (1846)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Taton, A. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Boraginaceae: 1-82. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Prod. 10: 149 (1846).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 103 (1990).
    • Kabuye & Agnew in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 521 (1974).
    • Taton, Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Borag.: 54, map 19 (1971).
    • Heine in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 324 (1963).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 781 (1962).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 2: 132, fig. 6 (1947).
    • Brand in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 252 (78): 141 (1921).
    • R.E. Fries, Wiss. Ergebn. Schwed. Rhod.-Kongo-Exped. 1: 272 (1916).
    • Gürke & Vaupel in Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907-1908, 2 (Botanik) p. 281 (1911).
    • Bak. & Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (2): 53 (1905).
    • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 353 (1892).
    • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 91 (1850).
    • A.DC. in DC., Prodr. 10: 149 (1846).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0