1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cynoglossum L.
      1. Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    A biennial or sometimes perennial herb 0.3–1.2(1.8) m. high with erect annual stems, shortly hispid with antrorse hairs toward the apex, spreading below and sometimes retrorse near the base.
    Leaves
    Inferior leaves with petiole 2.5–8(13) cm. long, the superior ones almost sessile; lamina of the inferior leaves 8–15(20) x 2–4(6.5) cm., lanceolate to oblanceolate, that of the superior ones 2–6(8) x 0.4–1.8 cm., lanceolate to sublinear, roughish to shortly hispid above, roughish to pubescent below, acute at apex, attenuate at base and decurrent on the petiole; midrib and 2 lateral veins in all leaves usually prominent below.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes ebracteate above the first flower, often divaricate.
    Flowers
    Flowers with pedicels 1.0–2.5(3) mm. long, a little accrescent and recurved in fruit.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.0–1.5 mm. long, divided to near the base; lobes ovate to oblong-ovate, roughish to shortly hispid outside, ciliate, glabrous inside, rounded at apex.
    Corolla
    Corolla 1.5–2.6 mm. long, white or blue or with the tube mauve and the limb white or bluish but deep blue at throat, glabrous; tube 0.7–1.4 mm. long, campanulate; lobes 0.6–1.5 x 0.6–1.5 mm., oblong-ovate to subcircular, rounded at apex; fornices much broader than long, semilunar.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at 0.6–0.9 mm. from the base of the corolla tube; anthers 0.4–0.6 mm. long, oblong; Filaments 0.2–0.3 mm. long.
    Style
    Style thick, up to 1.5 mm. long in fruit.
    Fruits
    Nutlets 1.5–2.5 x 1.2–1.8 mm. (without glochids), ovate, united to the style by a strap which detaches itself at complete maturity ± equally covered with 0.5–1.0 mm. long glochids; outer surface flat or convex, not marginate.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Annual or biennial (rarely ? perennial) herb 0.2–1.2 m. tall, branched from the base or ± unbranched below but mostly with upper inflorescence-bearing part well-branched; taproot thick, up to 20 × 2 cm.; stems drying brownish, with sparse to dense white adpressed to spreading slightly tubercle-based hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves elliptic, lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 2–13(–18) cm. long, 0.5–4(–5) cm. wide, acute at the apex, ± rounded at the base, scabrid with tubercle-based hairs from rings of cystoliths, breaking off to leave tubercles; venation ± impressed above, raised beneath; lower leaves with petioles developed, upper ± sessile.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and axillary, usually characteristically divaricately bifid, rapidly elongating, 1–20 cm. long, the individual branches mostly (2.5–)4–1 3(–22) cm. long; flowers typically small; pedicels ± 1 mm. long up to 2.5 mm. and mostly recurved in fruit.
    Calyx
    Sepals oblong, elliptic or ovate, 0.8–2 mm. long, 0.4–1.3 mm. wide, ± unequal and mostly 2 mm. long in fruit, with tubercle-based hairs outside.
    Corolla
    Corolla usually white or sometimes pale blue or with a blue centre; tube 1 mm. long; lobes rounded-ovate to oblong, 0.5–2 mm. long, 0.5–1 mm. wide; anthers 0.5 mm. long; style 0.2–0.3 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruits yellow-brown when ripe, 4–5 mm. wide, the nutlets subglobose-obovoid, 1.5–2 mm. in diameter, evenly covered all over with slender glochidia over 0.5 mm. long, separating easily at maturity; fruiting style ± 0.5(–1.3) mm. long, narrowly oblong and compressed, almost winged in dry state.
    Figures
    Fig. 29/2, p. 105.
    Habitat
    Grassland, bushland, often as a weed in plantations, cultivation edges, murram roadsides and other areas of bare soil; (?600–)1140–2040(-?2520) m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 widespread from Arabia to S. & W. Africa and to India, Malaysia and China
    [FWTA]

    Boraginaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A pilose herb 3-6 ft. high
    Flowers
    White or bluish flowers.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension

    Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 1973 Mbenkum, T. [328], Cameroon K000029810
    Brenan, J.P.M. [9541], Cameroon K000029838
    Brenan, J.P.M. [9541], Cameroon K000029839
    Gardner, G. [620], Sri Lanka K000942357
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000418901
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000418902 syntype
    Rehmann, A. [4123], South Africa K000418900
    Wallich, N. [921], India K000942356 isotype
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 921] K001110299
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 921] K001110300
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 921] K001110301
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 921], India K001110302
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 920], Nepal Cynoglossum vesiculosum K001110297
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 920], Nepal Cynoglossum vesiculosum K001110298
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 920], Nepal Cynoglossum vesiculosum K001110308
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 918], India Cynoglossum canescens K001110286
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 918], India Cynoglossum canescens K001110287
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 918], Nepal Cynoglossum canescens K001110288
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 918], Nepal Cynoglossum canescens K001110289
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 918], Nepal Cynoglossum canescens K001110290

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 41 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Meena, S.L. & Krishna, P.H. (2017). Eight additions to the flora of Gujarat state from Schoolpaneshwar wildlife sanctuary, Narmada district, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 41: 116-119.
    • König, J. & al. (2015). A revision of the genus Cynoglossum L. (Boraginaceae Juss.) in Nepal and notes on the widespread Asian species Phytotaxa 224: 1-28.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Ruengsawang, K. & Chantaranothai, P. (2009). A revision of Boraginaceae subfamily Boraginoideae in Thailand Thai Journal of Botany 1: 89-101.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Taton, A. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Boraginaceae: 1-82. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Brand in Engl. Pflanzenr. 4, 252: 139 (1921)
    • Chev. Bot. 452.
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 54
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab., Descr. Pl. 41 (1775)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • König, J. & al. (2015). A revision of the genus Cynoglossum L. (Boraginaceae Juss.) in Nepal and notes on the widespread Asian species Phytotaxa 224: 1-28.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 105, t. 30 (1990).
    • Kabuye & Agnew in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 521 (1974).
    • Taton in Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Borag.: 50 (1971), pro parte.
    • Ivens, E. Afr. Weeds: 79 (1967).
    • Heine in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 324 (1963).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 782 (1962).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 2: 130 (1947), pro parte.
    • Brand in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 252 (78): 37, fig. 18/A–G (1921), pro parte.
    • De Wild. in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 7: 38 (1920).
    • Gürke & F. Vaupel in Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907-1908, 2 (Botanik) p. 280 (1911).
    • Bak. & Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 54 (1905), pro parte.
    • C.B.Cl. in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 156 (1883), pro parte.
    • Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 41 (1775).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0