1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Calamagrostis Adans.
      1. Calamagrostis arenaria (L.) Roth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Canary Islands, Europe to Medit.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 50-120 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 10-30 mm long. Leaf-blades convolute; 20-60 cm long; 2-6 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; pubescent; hairy adaxially. Leaf-blade apex pungent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear, or oblong; tapering above; 7-22 cm long; 1-2.5 cm wide. Primary panicle branches appressed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1-4 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 10-16 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded. Floret callus hairs 0.25-0.33 length of lemma (3-5mm).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 10-16 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus bearded. Floret callus hairs 0.25-0.33 length of lemma (3-5mm).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 10-15 mm long; 0.9-1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface asperulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 10-16 mm long; 1.2-1.3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 8-12 mm long; coriaceous; keeled; 5-7 -veined. Lemma surface asperulous. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; mucronate. Principal lemma awn subapical. Palea 0.9 length of lemma; 2-4 -veined. Palea keels approximate; scaberulous; adorned above.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 4-7 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; obovoid. Hilum linear; 0.8 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north and south. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern and north-central. North America: western Canada, northwest USA, and southwest USA. South America: southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Aveneae. CEH.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Kuwait, Saudi Arabia

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, Denmark, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, Falkland Is., Fiji, Hawaii, Maryland, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Nova Scotia, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Washington, Western Australia

    Calamagrostis arenaria (L.) Roth appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Tent. Fl. Germ. 1: 34 (1788)

    Not accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Ammophila arenaria.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Mouterde, P. (1966). Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie 1(Texte): 1-563. Éditions de l'imprimerie Catholique, Beyrouth.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/