1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ceiba Mill.
      1. Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FWTA]

    Bombacaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A tree, up to 200 ft. high, in forest and planted by villages
    Trunk
    Trunk with large buttresses
    Branches
    Branches in different forms without prickles or with obtuse or acutely pointed stout prickles, generally prickly in the young state
    Flowers
    Flowers white, appearing either when the whole tree is bare or on leafless branches
    Fruits
    Fruits in some forms bursting on the tree, in others often falling
    Seeds
    Floss white or grey.
    [FZ]

    Bombacaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Tree up to 18 m. tall (often much taller outside our area) with horizontally branched crown and very straight trunk; bark pale grey, smooth, with scattered conical spines 1–1·5 cm. long, at least when young.
    Leaves
    Leaves 5–9-foliolate (usually 7, very rarely more than 9); petiole up to c. 15 cm. long, glabrous; leaflet-lamina articulated to a ± suborbicular disk at the apex of the petiole, up to 16 × 6·5 cm., narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate-elliptic, acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, margin undulate or rarely obscurely toothed near the apex, slightly paler below, glabrous on both sides, with 7–10 pairs of nerves slightly raised above, scarcely raised below, looping within the margin; petiolules up to 0·8 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers in axillary fascicles of 1–3; peduncle 2–3 cm. long, glabrous.
    Calyx
    Calyx c. 1·5 × 1·2 cm., campanulate, lobed i- of the way down with rounded lobes, glabrous outside, pubescent within.
    Corolla
    Petals rose-coloured or white, c. 3·5 × 0·7 cm., oblong-spathulate, rounded at the apex, tomentose outside, glabrous within.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube c. 5 mm. long; phalanges of 2–3 filaments c. 2 cm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous or nearly so; style c. 3·3 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule c. 8–20 × 4–11 cm., oblong-ellipsoid, valves smooth, brown, the whole filled with a copious whitish silky wool.
    Seeds
    Seeds many, c. 6 mm. in diam., dark brown, subglobose.
    [FTEA]

    Bombacaceae, H. Beentje (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Tree to 35(-50) m., with very straight trunk; main branches at right-angles to the trunk; crown layered in young trees; bole buttressed; bark smooth, in Flora area usually with scattered conical spines 1-1.5 cm. long.
    Branches
    Young branches glabrous or pubescent; older branches often spiny.
    Leaves
    Leaves 5-9-foliolate; stipules quickly caducous, leaving a large scar; petiole 5.5-25 cm. long, glabrous or sparsely pubescent in young leaves, pulvinate at the base, at the apex expanded into an almost circular disk; leaflets narrowly elliptic or narrowly obovate, 7-20 cm. long, 1.8-6.5 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, undulate at the margin, or rarely obscurely toothed near the apex in young leaves, glabrous; secondary veins in 14-20 pairs; petiolules 1-10 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers often on leafless branches, or sometimes present when the whole tree is leafless; inflorescence axillary, fasciculate, 1-15-flowered; pedicels 1.8-4.4 cm. long, glabrous, with scars of the caducous bracteoles.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 9-15 mm. long, 11-14 mm. wide, lobed for about one-fifth of its length, the lobes rounded or subacute, glabrous outside and pubescent inside.
    Corolla
    Petals pink or white, oblong to spathulate, 2-3.5 cm. long, 0.7-1.5 cm. wide, apex rounded or subacute, tomentose outside and glabrous inside.
    Stamens
    Filament-tube 5-9 mm. long, the 5 bundles 15-35 mm. long; anthers coiled or reniform, 3-5 mm. across.
    Pistil
    Ovary semi-inferior, 3-5 mm. high, 3-6 mm. across, glabrous or nearly so; style 25-33 mm. long, glabrous.
    Fruits
    Capsule at least somewhat woody, loculicidal, smooth-valved, brown, oblong-ellipsoid, 8-26(-60 according to Fl. Cameroun) cm. long, 4-11 cm. across, with a persistent calyx.
    Seeds
    Seeds many, subglobose, ± 6 mm. across, dark brown, embedded in copious white or greyish silky wool.
    Figures
    Fig. 4.
    Habitat
    Closed moist forest, also riverine or lacustrine; 840-1200 m.
    Distribution
    T1 U2 tropical America, Africa (see note) and SE. Asiaalso widely cultivated

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Cook Is., Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Marquesas, Mozambique, Nauru, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, Sudan, Sulawesi, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

    Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 Sasaki, D. [2527], Mato Grosso K000579741
    Jan 1, 2009 Gómez Chalaga, B. [894], Mexico K001259003
    Jun 1, 2008 Jones, B.L. [243], Sabah K000224951
    Jan 1, 2008 Ibarra M., G. [5975], Mexico K001259001
    Jan 1, 2008 Ibarra M., G. [5975], Mexico K001259002
    Oct 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11067], Cameroon K000337780
    Oct 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5215], Cameroon K000337781
    Oct 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5215], Cameroon K000338423
    Jul 28, 1993 Daramola, B.O. [206], Nigeria K000211504
    Jul 28, 1993 Daramola, B.O. [206], Nigeria K000211505
    Jul 28, 1993 Daramola, B.O. [206], Nigeria K000211507
    Jan 1, 1985 Bullock, S.H. [1550], Mexico K000724037
    Jan 1, 1985 Bullock, S.H. [1550], Mexico K000724038
    Jan 1, 1966 Morton [3675], Sierra Leone K000211492
    Milne-Redhead, E. [5019], Nigeria 15359.000
    Vigne, C. [1539], Ghana K000211497
    Vigne, C. [3469], Ghana K000211510
    Latilo, M.G. [34404], Nigeria K000211509
    Deighton, F.C. [3615], Sierra Leone K000211491
    Darko, K.O. [2045], Ghana K000211496
    Gartlan, J.S. [6], Cameroon 6049.051
    Gartlan, J.S. [6], Cameroon K000105004
    Milliken, W. [M.819], Brazil 54107.000
    Harris, D.J. [334], Central African Republic 55586.000
    McWinter, J. [42], Madagascar 31901.000
    McWinter, J.H. [42], Madagascar 32135.000
    Welwitsch [5404], Angola K001259230
    Welwitsch [5406], Angola K001259229
    Welwitsch [5408], Angola K001259227
    Welwitsch [5405], Angola K001259228
    Hinds [1841], Mexico K000724031
    Rose, J.N. [1887], Mexico K000724032
    Kersting [709], Togo K000211500
    Kersting [710], Togo K000211501
    Kersting [713], Togo K000211502
    Irvine, F.R. [1832], Ghana K000211511
    Irvine, F.R. [1832], Ghana K000211512
    Foster, E.W. [372], Nigeria K000211513
    Foster, E.W. [372], Nigeria K000211514
    Lowe, J. [s.n.], Cape Verde K000211488
    Espirito Santo, J. [1730], Guinea-Bissau K000211489
    Batten-Poole, W.H. [231], Nigeria K000211506
    Unwin, A.H. [21], Nigeria K000211515
    Mori, S. [19244], Ghana K000211499
    Frith, A.C. [162], Gambia K000211508
    Chapman, H.M. [3807], Nigeria K000211503
    Pennington, T.D. [9461], Mexico K000724033
    Pennington, T.D. [9527], Mexico K000724034
    Palmer, E. [603], Mexico K000724028
    Palmer, E. [603], Mexico K000724029
    Palmer, E. [103], Mexico K000724030
    Baldwin, J.T. Jr. [10659], Liberia K000211493
    Chevalier, A.J.B. [23689], Benin K000211516
    Chevalier, A.J.B. [23687], Benin K000211517
    Simá, P. [1974], Mexico K000724035
    Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10552], Cameroon K000095000
    Davey, J.T. [45], Mali K000211490
    Wit, H.C.D. de [7918], Côte d'Ivoire K000211494
    Attafuah, A. [5107], Ghana K000211498
    Rosevear, D. R. [80/37], Cameroon K000105003
    s.coll. [s.n.], Mexico K000724036

    First published in Fruct. Sem. Pl. 2: 244 (1791)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Niembro Rocas, A., Vázquez Torres, M. & Sáchez Sáchez, O. (2010). Árboles de Veracruz 100 especies para la reforstación estratégica: 1-253. Gombierno del Estado de Veracruz, México.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 169.
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 228, t. 216
    • Bakhuizen in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., sér. 3, 6: 194 (q.v. for synonymy)
    • Fruct. 2: 244, t. 133, fig. 1 (1791)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
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    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Wild & Gonçalves in Fl. Moçamb. 26:10, t. 1B (1979).
    • J.-F. Villiers, Fl. Cameroun 19: 76, t. 21 (1975).
    • J.-F. Villiers in Fl. Gabon 22: 36, t. 10 (1973)
    • Robyns in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 51: 48 (1964).
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    Sources

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    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0