1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium curassavicum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Prostrate or decumbent annual or perennial fleshy herb, much branched, glaucous, quite glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or supposite, 15–30(45) x 2–6 mm., narrowly oblong to narrowly obovate, rounded at apex, narrowed gradually to the base into a short petiole, entire, fleshy, slightly verrucous.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes moderately dense, ebracteate, slightly scorpioid, up to 8 cm. long when completely expanded, single or 2, rarely to 4 on each short common peduncle, terminal.
    Flowers
    Flowers subsessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx c. 2 mm. long, irregularly divided; tube none to as long as; of the calyx; lobes usually subequal, ovate to narrowly triangular, apex subacute to rounded, slightly inflexed.
    Corolla
    Corolla usually overlapping the calyx a little, salver-shaped, white; tube 1.5–2.0 mm. long; lobes usually unequal, the largest one up to 1.0 mm. long, triangular-ovate to oblong, rounded at apex.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at 1/31/2 of the corolla tube; anthers c. 0.8 mm. long, narrowly ovoid, apiculate, subcordate at base, subsessile.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid.
    Pistil
    Style very short; stigma umbrella shaped without sterile appendix.
    Fruits
    Fruits c. 2 mm. long, ± globulose; nutlets ovoid, free at maturity, with the outer surface rugose, the inner one with a ± circular cavity or a shell-shaped depression.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Branched prostrate glabrous somewhat fleshy ± glaucous perennial herb with radiating stems 7–20(–40) cm. long, usually from a deep rhizome or tuber; flowering stems ± ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaves oblanceolate or oblong, 1–5 cm. long, 3–8(–20) mm. wide, obtuse or rounded at the apex, narrowed at the base, ± succulent and juicy.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or extra-axillary and lateral along the leafy stems, single, paired or rarely ternate, densely-flowered scorpioid cymes, elongating in fruit to up to 10 cm.; bracts absent; pedicels obsolete.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobed almost to the base; lobes ± equal, lanceolate or oblong, 1–1.4 mm. long, ± obtuse, ± accrescent in fruit, fleshy.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, mostly with a greenish yellow eye and sometimes a faint pink stripe on the lobes; tube cylindrical, 1–1.5 mm. long, 0.8–1.2 mm. diameter, slightly shorter than the calyx-lobes; limb 1.5–3(–10) mm. diameter, the lobes rounded, 0.6–1 mm. long, 0.8–1.3 mm. wide, ascending or somewhat spreading.
    Anthers
    Anthers lanceolate, pointed, not cohering, held about 0.5 mm. above the corolla base, 0.8–1 mm. long, subsessile.
    Stigma
    Stigma 0.5 mm. long, 0.6 mm. wide, conic with a truncate obscurely 4-lobulate apex, becoming discoid and somewhat 4–5- sided in fruit.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4-lobed, 2–2.5 mm. tall, 2–3 mm. wide, smooth; nutlets 4, obscurely didymous, the backs smooth and rounded, ventrally angled, rough; each nutlet 1-seeded with a bony endocarp and dorsally with a thick layer of firm vesicular exocarp which acts as a float for water dissemination.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    French Guiana

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Central American Pac, Chile Central, Chile North, Colombia, Colorado, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Leeward Is., Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Angola, Azores, Baleares, Bangladesh, Botswana, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Free State, Greece, Gulf States, Illinois, KwaZulu-Natal, Libya, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Spain, Tanzania, Tunisia, West Himalaya

    Heliotropium curassavicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Archbold, M.E. [1081], Tanzania 6049.149
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [19681], Brazil K000096785
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000418756
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000418757
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000418758
    St. Hilaire [C2249], Brazil K000096787
    St. Hilaire [2249], Uruguay K000096786
    Wright, C. [480], New Mexico Heliotropium angustifolium K000998335

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 130 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • di Fulvio, T.E. & Espinar, L.A. (2016). Las especies Argentinas de Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 51: 745-787.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Verloove, F. (2013). New xenophytes from Gran Canaria (Canary islands, Spain), with emphasis on naturalised and (potentially) invasive species Collectanea Botanica 32: 59-82.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Verloove, Fl. & Reyes-Betancort, J.A. (2011). Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary islands, Spain) Collectanea Botanica 30: 63-78.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2008). Med-Checklist Notulae, 27 Willdenowia 38: 465-474.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • di Fulvio, T.E. & Espinar, L.A. (2016). Las especies Argentinas de Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 51: 745-787.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Verloove, Fl. & Reyes-Betancort, J.A. (2011). Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary islands, Spain) Collectanea Botanica 30: 63-78.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2008). Med-Checklist Notulae, 27 Willdenowia 38: 465-474.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1-1692. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Sachet, M.-H. (1962). Flora and vegetation of Clipperton island Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 31: 249-307.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 93, t. 26/12 (1990).
    • Riedl in Fl. Turkey 6: 255, fig. 11/3 (1978).
    • Brummitt in Fl. Europaea 3: 86 (1972).
    • Correll & M.C. Johnston, Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas: 1288 (1970).
    • Kazmi in Journ. Arn. Arb. 51: 179 (1970).
    • I.M. Johnston in Lundell et al., Fl. Texas 1: 145 (1964, rpt. 1967).
    • I.M. Johnston in Contr. Gray Herb. 81: 14 (1928)
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 130 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0