1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Hackelochloa Kuntze
      1. Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual; culms 5–100 cm. high, erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear-lanceolate, 2–15 cm. long, 4–12 mm. wide, coarsely hispid, subamplexicaul.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 5–15 mm. long.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet ± 1 mm. long; upper glume narrowly crested at the apex. Pedicelled spikelet 1.5–2.5 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet ± 1 mm. long; upper glume narrowly crested at the apex.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 1.5–2.5 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 200.
    Habitat
    A weed of disturbed soils around habitations and old farmland; 0–2100 m.
    Distribution
    throughout the tropics K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3 Z
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual, up to 60 cm. high or more
    Ecology
    Weed of cultivated land.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Coarse annual; culms up to 100 cm high, erect.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminas 2–15 cm × 4–12 mm, coarsely hispid, subamplexicaul.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 5–15 mm long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet c. 1 mm long and wide; superior glume narrowly crested at the apex.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet 1.5–2.5 mm long. Sessile spikelet c. 1 mm long and wide; superior glume narrowly crested at the apex.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 1.5–2.5 mm long.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect; 5-100 cm long. Culm-nodes bearded. Leaf-sheaths loose, or inflated; hirsute; with tubercle-based hairs. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blade base cordate. Leaf-blades linear to lanceolate; 2-15 cm long; 4-12 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface hirsute; with tubercle-based hairs. Leaf-blade margins ciliate.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; scanty. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole linear. Racemes 1; single; 0.5-1.5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened. Rhachis internodes oblong; 1-1.5 mm long; adherent to upper glume of sessile spikelet. Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels fused to internode; united wholly; oblong.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; ovate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 1.5-2.5 mm long; as long as fertile, or longer than fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes herbaceous; winged on keels; distinctly veined; 5-7 -veined; smooth; glabrous; entire; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets orbicular; dorsally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; ovate; asymmetrical; dorsally compressed; 1.5-2.5 mm long; as long as fertile, or longer than fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes herbaceous; winged on keels; distinctly veined; 5-7 -veined; smooth; glabrous; entire; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets orbicular; dorsally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume orbicular; 1 length of spikelet; indurate; without keels. Lower glume surface rugose, or cancellate. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong; cartilaginous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; hyaline; 0 -veined; without midvein; without lateral veins; obtuse. Fertile lemma ovate; 1 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea hyaline; 0 -veined; without keels.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; orbicular; dorsally compressed.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: northwestern and north-central. North America: southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Georgia, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Maryland, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 23, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [2213], Thailand K000620136
    Jan 23, 2009 Put [3989], Thailand K000620137
    Philcox, D. [4183], Brazil K001106277
    Philcox, D. [3829], Brazil K001106278
    Sorensen, Th. [4378], Thailand K000648027
    Sorensen, Th. [5038], Thailand K000648028
    Hatschbach, G. [22006], Brazil K001106279
    Krapovickas, A. [33143], Brazil K001106281
    Ratter, J.A. [958], Brazil K001106276
    Smitinand, T. [1989], Thailand K000648025
    Chantaranothai, P. [90/779], Thailand K000648026
    Coradin, L. [623], Brazil K001106282
    Irwin, H.S. [21122], Brazil K001106280
    Ule, E. [8026], Brazil K001106271
    Swallen, J.R. [3673], Brazil K001106275
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001106274
    Iwatsuki, k. [T 9458], Thailand K000648029
    Murata, G. [T-15609], Thailand K000648030
    Phusomsaeng, S. [23], Thailand K000648024
    Anderson [s.n.], Brazil K001106268
    Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K001106266
    Gardner [3543], Brazil K001106269
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001106272
    Burchell [8782], Brazil K001106270
    Burchell [8961], Brazil K001106273
    [Gondim] [[3543]], Brazil K001106267
    Hinton, G.B. [4844], México State Mnesithea granularis K000476369
    Hinton, G.B. [4766], México State Mnesithea granularis K000476372
    Hinton, G.B. [1748], México State Mnesithea granularis K000476370
    Hinton, G.B. [1748], México State Mnesithea granularis K000476371
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8879], India Manisuris granularis K001131737
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8879], Nepal Manisuris granularis K001131738
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8879], Nepal Manisuris granularis K001131739
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8879], Myanmar Manisuris granularis K001131740
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8879], Myanmar Manisuris granularis K001131742
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8879] Manisuris granularis K001131732
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8879] Manisuris granularis K001131733
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8879] Manisuris granularis K001131734
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8879], India Manisuris granularis K001131735
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8879], India Manisuris granularis K001131736
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8879] Manisuris granularis K001131741

    First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 776 (1891)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 421.
    • Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 776 (1891)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Veldkamp, J.F. & al. (2013). A revision of Mnesithea (Gramineae - Rottboelliinae) in Malesia and Thailand Blumea 58: 277-292.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 505 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 114 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 34 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 63 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 42 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 461 (1956).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 41 (1955).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 21 (1947).
    • Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 776 (1891).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0