1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium glutinosum Phil.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Chile (Atacama).

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, Región de Atacama, Prov. Chañaral, Agua Dulce in Deserto Atacama, 26°16' [sic] lat. S, 6300 p.s.m. [1920 m], 21 Feb. 1854, R. A. Philippi s.n. (holotype SGO 54387 [fragm. GH, photo F, GH, MSB, NY, US]; isotypes B† [photo F neg. no. 17323: F, GH, MSB, NY, US], W 12894).
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, 0.2 – 0.8 (− 1.3) m tall, profusely branched, densely foliose to the apex, but losing most leaves during dry years
    Stem
    Stems and foliage glutinous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 9 leaves, sessile, linear-oblong, 8 – 23 × 1.5 – 6 mm; lamina glutinous with evident red glands and few simple hairs, green or greyish-green, margin sinuate, revolute, base attenuated, apex acute, with the main and secondary veins conspicuous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, to c. 4 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, alternate, erect, aromatic. Calyx cylindrical, pale green; calyx lobes linear, fused only at the base, hirsute and glandulous outside, strigose within, 1.5 – 3.5 × 0.5 – 1.5 mm, free portion 1.5 – 3.5 mm long, apex obtuse
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, hispid outside, dull white with yellow throat; limb horizontally spreading, 4.5 – 6.5 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube as long as or slightly longer than the calyx, 3.5 – 5 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted at late anthesis; filaments adnate to petals; anthers oblong, glabrous, base cordate, apex obtuse, 1 – 1.5 mm long, overlapping the stigmatic head
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, c. 0.7 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, c. 0.2 mm long, shorter than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, glabrous, 1 – 1.5 × 0.4 – 0.6 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, glabrous, light brown, c. 1.6 × 1.3 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, each c. 1.6 × 0.8 mm diam.
    Pollen
    Pollen prolate, 18.3 – 20.2 × 9.5 – 10.8 μm (from Luebert & Torres 1970, BSB)
    Distribution
    Endemic to the Andean foothills of the province of Chañaral (Región de Atacama) in Chile, 26°04' – 27°10'S (Map 4).
    Ecology
    Ravines or alluvial plains of the Andean foothills in a matrix of barren desert, 1195 – 2200 m. The species is locally common but not dominant. The vegetation is a desert scrub dominated by Atriplex spp. (Amaranthaceae), Nolana leptophylla (Miers) I. M. Johnst. (Solanaceae) and Encelia canescens Lam. (Asteraceae).
    Conservation
    Endangered (EN), after the application of both IUCN (2001) criteria of extent of the presence (B1) and area of occupancy (B2). Heliotropium glutinosum occurs in an area where interannual climatic fluctuations are extreme, which directly affects the number of subpopulations and individuals. Only five locations are known for this species. Mining activities at large and small scale are present over the whole of the distribution of this species, which represents an additional threat, and no protected area has been officially established there.
    Phenology

    Throughout the year provided sufficient moisture.

    Note

    The epithet glutinosum refers to its resinous foliage.

    This species is readily distinct from the other members of sect. Cochranea due to the presence of conspicuous glandular trichomes on the leaf surface, as well as its geographic distribution and elevation. Only Heliotropium chenopodiaceum can be rarely found in the same geographical area, but the latter species has smaller leaves and flowers and the glandular trichomes are not visible to the naked eye.

    Toro & Moldenke (1979) indicate that Heliotropium glutinosum (erroneously cited as H. stenophyllum) is pollinated by two Colletidae species: Chilicola deserticola Toro & Moldenke 1979 and C. erithropoda Toro & Moldenke 1979.

    Vernacular
    Palo negro (Spanish).
    [KBu]
    Use
    No uses are reported in the literature, but Modak et al. (2007) indicate antioxidant activity of the resinous exudates.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North

    Heliotropium glutinosum Phil. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Atacam.: 38 (1860)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 197)
    • Johnston (1928b: 33)
    • Philippi 1860a: 38Reiche (1907: 2421910: 200)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0