1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium inconspicuum Reiche

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Chile (Antofagasta, Atacama).

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, Región de Antofagasta, Prov. Antofagasta, Breas in deserto Atacama, 1888, A. Larrañaga s.n. (holotype SGO 54431 [fragm. GH, photo F, GH, MSB, NY, US]). Replacement name for Cochranea parviflora.
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, 0.3 – 1 m tall, profusely branched, densely foliose to the apex
    Stem
    Stems and foliage glutinous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 11 leaves, sessile or with short petiole, linear-oblanceolate to linear-spathulate, 4 – 10 × 0.7 – 2 mm; lamina glutinous, pubescent on both sides, sparsely strigose on the adaxial surface, white-tomentose on the abaxial surface, dark-green or dark greyish-green, with two white bands on the abaxial surface when dried, margin entire, revolute, base attenuate, apex obtuse, with only the main vein conspicuous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, to c. 5 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, alternate, erect
    Calyx
    Calyx cylindrical, green; calyx lobes linear, glutinous, free or fused only at the base, sparsely strigose outside, glabrous within, 1 – 2 × 0.3 – 1 mm, free portion 0.8 – 2 mm long, apex acute
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, hispid outside, dull white with yellow throat; limb horizontally spreading, 3 – 4 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube longer than the calyx, 2.5 – 4.5 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included; filaments adnate to petals; anthers linear-lanceolate, glabrous, base cordate, apex acute, c. 1 mm long, overlapping the stigmatic head or above it
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, c. 0.5 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, c. 0.7 – 0.8 mm long, equal to or slightly longer than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, bilobate, c. 0.7 × 0.7 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, glabrous, light brown, c. 2.5 – 3 × 4.5 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, each c. 3 × 3 mm diam.
    Pollen
    Pollen prolate, 28 – 30.5 × 15.5 – 18 μm Amb lobes not deep Endoapertures c. 3.5 μm diam., circular Exine thickness c. 1 μm at the equator and c. 1.3 μm at the poles (from Ricardi 3122 in Marticorena 1968)
    Distribution
    Coastal hills of the provinces of Antofagasta (Región de Antofagasta) and Chañaral (Región de Atacama), Chile, between 25°5'S and 26°8'S (Map 8).
    Ecology
    Gravelly hillsides of the coastal Atacama Desert, 100 – 780 m, where it is usually scarce or rarely locally abundant. It forms part of the coastal scrub in the fog zone, where the dominant species are Eulychnia iquiquensis (Cactaceae), Euphorbia lactiflua (Euphorbiaceae), Balbisia peduncularis (Ledocarpaceae), Nolana ramosissima I. M. Johnst. (Solanaceae), Oxalis gigantea Barnéoud (Oxalidaceae), among others.
    Conservation
    Vulnerable (VU), criterion B2 (a,c), see Luebert (2010). Populations of this species are both naturally severely fragmented due to its discontinuous distribution around ravines and streamlets and subject to extreme interannual fluctuation in the number of mature individuals due to climatic variability.
    Phenology

    September to November.

    Note

    An illustration of Heliotropium inconspicuum can be found in Finger & Teillier (2010). This species is easily recognisable on herbarium specimens by its two white bands on the abaxial leaf surface after drying (Johnston 1928b), which are not developed by any other species of section Cochranea. However it is frequently confounded in herbaria, even with the very different species H. philippianum and H. taltalense. Although these two species have a similar geographic range to H. inconspicuum, they are morphologically very different. H. philippianum has leaves usually > 1 cm long, while in H. inconspicuum the leaves are not longer than 1 cm. H. taltalense also has larger leaves, the leaf surface is rugose and the margin sinuate, while H. inconspicuum has leaves not rugose and the margin is straight. H. inconspicuum has also been confounded with H. filifolium and H. chenopodiaceum, both with small leaves, but different geographic ranges. From the former it differs in having the style equal to or longer than the stigmatic head and leaves not terete (vs sessile stigmatic head and leaves terete in H. filifolium); from the latter it differs in its leaves with rounded apex and in having the style equal to or longer than the stigmatic head (vs acute leaves and style shorter than the stigmatic head in H. chenopodiaceum).

    [KBu]
    Use
    The presence of saponin in the leaves of Heliotropium inconspicuum (Ricardi et al. 1958) may give a pharmacological potential to this species.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North

    Heliotropium inconspicuum Reiche appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Chile 5: 203 (1910)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 200)
    • Marticorena (1968: 44)
    • Johnston (1928b: 28)
    • (1907: 2451910: 203)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0