1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Eragrostis Wolf
      1. Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cameroon to Eritrea and S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial; basal leaf-sheaths strongly striate with the nerves forming prominent ridges, often hard and yellowish, appressed silky hairy below; culms 30–120 cm. high, slender or robust, usually erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrow, up to ± 30 cm. long, 3 mm. wide, usually rolled or filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle very variable, loose and spreading to narrow and contracted, 6–30 cm. long, the lowest branches often whorled and hairy in the axils.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4–13-flowered, linear, 4–10 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide, grey-green, breaking up from the base, the rhachilla persistent below but fragile above; lower glume lanceolate, 1–1.8 mm. long, 1/3-3/4 as long as the lowest floret; upper glume narrowly ovate, 1.5–2.2 mm. long; lemmas ovate-elliptic, 1.8–2.6 mm. long, appressed to the rhachilla; palea smooth or minutely scaberulous on the keels, persistent; anthers 3, 0.8–1.1 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ellipsoid, 0.7 mm. long.
    Habitat
    A South African species widely employed as a forage and ground-cover plant; occasionally found as an escape; ± 1000–1800 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K6 T7 southwards to South Africaintroduced throughout the tropics
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial without rhizomes or stolons; culms up to 120 cm tall, slender or stout, firm or spongy, usually erect, sometimes ascending, usually unbranched, rarely branched, glabrous at the nodes, the internodes glabrous or pilose, eglandular; basal leaf sheaths silky-pilose below, coriaceous and hard, the nerves forming close, prominent ridges, terete, eglandular, persistent; ligule a line of hairs; leaf laminas 10–30 cm × 1–3(10) mm, linear to broadly linear, flat or involute, sometimes filiform, straight or flexuous, glabrous to pilose, eglandular.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 6–30 cm long, ovate and loose and spreading to narrow and contracted, the spikelets evenly distributed on pedicels 0.5–4 mm long, the primary branches in whorls below or not, terminating in a fertile spikelet, glabrous or pilose in the axils, eglandular.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 4–10 × 1–1.5 mm, linear to narrowly oblong, laterally compressed, 4–13-flowered, the lemmas disarticulating from below upwards, the rhachilla persistent, sometimes fragile above; glumes unequal, keeled, glabrous, acute at the apex, the inferior 1–1.8 mm long, reaching to between 2/3 and 4/5 the way along the adjacent lemma, narrowly lanceolate in profile, the superior 1.5–2.5 mm long, reaching to between 1/2 and 3/4 the way along the adjacent lemma, lanceolate in profile; lemmas 1.4–2.6 mm long, keeled, narrowly ovate-elliptic in profile, membranous with indistinct lateral nerves, appressed to the rhachilla, those in opposite rows not overlapping, the rhachilla visible between them, greyish-green, minutely scaberulous, subacute at the apex; palea persistent, glabrous on the flanks, the keels slender, wingless, smooth and glabrous or scaberulous; anthers 3, 0.8–1.1 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis 0.7–1 mm long, elliptic.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths coriaceous; yellow; distinctly ribbed; pubescent. Culms erect; 30-120 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform, or linear; flat, or convolute; 10-30 cm long; 1-3 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open, or contracted; lanceolate, or ovate; 6-30 cm long. Primary panicle branches not whorled, or whorled at lower nodes. Panicle branches glabrous in axils, or pubescent in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 4-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 4-10 mm long; 1-1.5 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; rhachilla persistent; retaining paleas; tough throughout, or fragile above; with the distal florets disarticulating separately, or disarticulating into irregular segments.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 4-13 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear; laterally compressed; 4-10 mm long; 1-1.5 mm wide; breaking up at maturity; rhachilla persistent; retaining paleas; tough throughout, or fragile above; with the distal florets disarticulating separately, or disarticulating into irregular segments.
    Glume
    Glumes deciduous; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate; 1-1.8 mm long; 0.6-0.8 length of upper glume; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 1.5-2.2 mm long; 0.8 length of adjacent fertile lemma; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets appressed to rhachilla. Fertile lemma elliptic, or ovate; 1.8-2.6 mm long; membranous; grey; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma apex obtuse, or acute. Palea keels smooth, or scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.8-1.1 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; 0.7 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Cyprus

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile South, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Florida, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Iran, Italy, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Myanmar, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Uruguay, Utah, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Xinjiang, Yemen

    Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 1, 1973 Klein, R.M. [10792], Brazil K001075246
    Clayton, W.D. [4908], Brazil K001075242
    Hatschbach, G. [48824], Brazil K001075241
    Galpin, E.E. [2354], South Africa K000365803 syntype
    Burchell [2606], Botswana K000365827 Unknown type material
    Burchell [1612-11], Cape Province K000365828
    Harvey [100], Cape Province K000365825 syntype
    Harvey [289], Cape Province K000365836 Unknown type material
    Gardner [42], Zimbabwe K000366329 Unknown type material
    Nelson [89x], Transvaal K000365801 syntype
    Kummrow, R. [2040], Brazil K001075243
    Schweinfurth [75], Eritrea K000366456 Unknown type material
    Zeyher [1806], Cape Province K000365826 Unknown type material
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000365806 syntype
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365809 syntype
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365811 syntype
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365820 syntype
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000365821 syntype
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365837 Unknown type material
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365838
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365840 Unknown type material
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365841 Unknown type material
    Buchanan [248], KwaZulu-Natal K000365816 Unknown type material
    Buchanan [141], Lesotho K000365830 Unknown type material
    Buchanan [93], KwaZulu-Natal K000365835 Unknown type material
    Ecklon [452], Cape Province K000365824 syntype
    Ecklon [952], Cape Province K000365834 Unknown type material
    Ecklon [950], Cape Province K000365839 Unknown type material
    Cooper, T. [3348], Free State K000365808 syntype
    Rehmann, A. [7130], KwaZulu-Natal K000365812 syntype
    Rehmann, A. [5689], Transvaal K000365813 syntype
    Kuntze, O. [s.n.], South Africa K000365831 Unknown type material
    Kuntze, O. [s.n.], Free State K000365832 Unknown type material
    Kuntze, O. [s.n.], Cape Province K000365833 Unknown type material
    MacOwan [2191], South Africa K000365843 Unknown type material
    Medley Wood, J. [7221], KwaZulu-Natal K000365804 syntype
    Medley Wood, J. [5940], KwaZulu-Natal K000365842 Unknown type material
    Baur, R. Rev. [72], Cape Province K000365800 syntype
    Bowker [153], South Africa K000365802 syntype
    Bowker [148], Cape Province K000365823 syntype
    Thom [350 (850350 (850?)], Cape Province K000365829 Unknown type material
    Rehmann [5697], Transvaal K000365805 syntype
    Rehmann [7134], KwaZulu-Natal K000365810 syntype
    Mund: Maire [s.n], Cape Province K000365822 syntype
    Drege? [s.n.], South Africa K000365807
    Wewitsch [2645], Angola K000366325 Unknown type material
    Wewitsch [2655], Angola K000366326 Unknown type material
    Wewitsch [2672], Angola K000366327 Unknown type material
    Hobbs [655], Zimbabwe K000366328 Unknown type material
    Cordeiro, J. [164], Brazil K001075240
    Klein, R.M. [12112], Brazil K001075244
    Lima, J.M. [430], Brazil K001075245
    Jan 1, 1933 Buchanan [249a], KwaZulu-Natal Eragrostis robusta K000365817 Unknown type material
    Buchanan [249], KwaZulu-Natal Eragrostis robusta K000365815 Unknown type material
    Buchanan [78], KwaZulu-Natal Eragrostis robusta K000365818 Unknown type material
    Buchanan [250], KwaZulu-Natal Eragrostis robusta K000365819 Unknown type material

    First published in Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill.: 397 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D., Peterson, P.M. & Sánchez Vega, I. (2012). The genus Eragrostis (Poaceae : Chloridoideae) in northwestern South America (Colombia, Ecuador and Peru) : morphological and taxonomic studies: 1-195. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Escobar, I. & al. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Eragrostis Wolf en Chile, basada en análisis estadísticos multivariados Gayana. Botánica 68: 49-85.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Damanakis, M. & Scholz, H. (1990). Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece Willdenowia 19: 413-423.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Verloove, F. & Sánchez Gullón, E. (2012). New records of interesting vascular plants (mainly xenophytes) in the Iberian Peninsula. II Flora Mediterranea 22: 5-24.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Escobar, I. & al. (2011). Revisión taxonómica del género Eragrostis Wolf en Chile, basada en análisis estadísticos multivariados Gayana. Botánica 68: 49-85.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Damanakis, M. & Scholz, H. (1990). Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece Willdenowia 19: 413-423.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 30 (1965).
    • Nees, Fl. Afr. Austr.: 397 (1841).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0