1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Colocasia Schott
      1. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott

        This species is accepted, and its native range is India to S. China and Sumatera.

    [FTEA]

    Araceae, S.J. Mayo. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Robust, acaulescent herb to 2 m. high or more; stem a swollen starchy tuber.
    Leaves
    Leaf broadly ovate in outline, peltate, cordate-sagittate, held pendent from ± erect petiole, apex obtuse, basal lobes ± rounded, primary lateral veins 6–10, prominent on lower surface, distal side veinlets of primary lateral veins arching towards margin and forming regular, parallel series.
    Note
    Flowering is very rare in some cultivars.
    Spathe
    Spathe 20–30 cm. long, basal tube green, short, apical blade yellow to orange, much longer.
    Spadix
    Spadix shorter than spathe with conic, sterile appendix up to 4 cm. long (occasionally reduced or absent).
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual, lacking tepals.
    Distribution
    Cultivated throughout the tropics for the tubers, petioles and young leaves, which are eaten after cooking. Naturalized in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania (and throughout the tropics) in moist localities, especially highland valleys, e.g. Uganda, Ruwenzori, Eggeling 3804!
    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    General Description
    Robust herb c. 0.8–1.8 m tall. Stem rhizomatous, condensed, usually short in wild or feral forms, though occasionally subarborescent (e.g. G. Gede Pangrango, Java), strongly stoloniferous in wild and some cultivated forms. LEAVES several; petiole c. 0.8–1.8 m long, with the sheath long, the apex usually bent horizontal (shade) or vertically down (sun) so blade often pendent; blade ovate-sagittate c. 25–90 cm long x 20–70 cm wide greenish to dark green, sometimes dark purple adaxially, pale green or glaucous abaxially; apex acute, c. 0.5 cm long; anterior lobe c. 2/3 the length of the blade; primary veins 5–7 on each side of the anterior costa, prominent abaxially and slightly raised adaxially, diverging from the midrib at 50–70°; sub marginal vein c. 0.2 cm from the margin; secondary venation flush with lamina to slightly raised abaxially; interprimary collective veins inconspicuous; posterior lobes c. 1/3 length of blade, acute, peltate for 2/3 their length, diverging at c. 40°–50°. INFLORESCENCES several together in row in the leaf axils; peduncle c. 70 cm long, down-curved in fruiting stage. Spathe varied in colour from green, yellow to orange, c. 30 cm long, constricted at level of sterile zone of the spadix; lower spathe c. 5 cm long, narrowly oblong-ovate, green; limb long, very narrowly ovate, c. 25 cm long, slightly bent, yellow to orange, deciduous or withering. Spadix stipitate, c. 13.5 cm long; female zone 3 cm long, pistils with scattered staminodes; ovary globose, green, c. 0.15 cm long, c. 0.15 cm in diam., with many ovules, placenta parietal; stigma light yellow, on short style, 1 lobed, lobes rounded; style c. 0.05 cm long; sterile interstice attenuate, c. 1 cm long, c. 6 whorls of more or less rhombo-hexagonal synandrodia; male zone c. 4 cm long, yellow; synandria irregularly rounded to rhombo-hexagonal, c. 0.15 cm long, c. 0.1 cm in diam.; thecae flat-topped, opening through apical pores; appendix yellow, c. 5.5 cm long. Fruit a green berry, thin-walled, few seeded, ± 0.4 cm long. Rhizome vertical to horizontal, tuberous, 3–5cm or more (up to 15cm) in diam. Stolons long or absent. Leaves 2 or 3 or more; petiole green, 25–80cm, sheathing for 1/3–2/3 length; leaf blade adaxially matte waxy-glaucous and water-shedding (water sometimes forming “mercury droplets”), oblong-ovate to suborbicular, 13–45 × 10–35cm, base shallowly cordate (sinus 1–4cm), apex broadly and shortly cuspidate. Peduncle usually solitary, 16–26cm. Spathe tube green, 3.5–5 × 1.2–1.5cm; limb open proximally, cream-colored to golden yellow, lanceolate or elliptic, 10–19 × 2–5cm, apex acuminate. Spadix: female zone conic, 3–3.5 × ca. 1.2cm; ovary 1–3mm in diam.; stigma subsessile, narrower than apex of ovary; sterile zone narrowly cylindric, 3–3.3cm; sterile flowers (pistils) seen from above elongate, ca. 0.5mm in diam.; male zone cylindric, 4–6.5cm × ca. 7mm; appendix narrowly conic, 15–45 × ca. 2mm. Berry green, ca. 4mm. Seeds few; synandria ca. 1mm high, ca. 0.8mm in diam. 2n = 26, 28, 30, 36, 38, 42, 44, 46, 48, 52, 58, 84, 116.
    Habitat
    Wild forms occur as colonies on river banks, in open swampy places, on slopes and on rocks and banks in the splash-zone of waterfalls. Very occasionally found in forest under storey (e.g., at Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatera). Widely cultivated usually near farmhouses or in water fields; also naturalized or perhaps native in wet places in forests, valleys, swamps, wastelands, and at watersides.
    Distribution
    Pan tropical and pan subtropical (in areas with adequate water) through cultivation for the edible, starch-bearing rhizome and the leaves – The range prior to human distribution is unknown, but may have been widespread from Indochina to southern Japan, through Malesia and northern Australia. In Malesia: throughout.
    Phenology
    Fl. Feb–Apr (Yunnan), or Aug–Sep (Qin Ling area).
    Vernacular
    yu
    Common Taro, Talas or Keladi.
    [FWTA]

    Araceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Note
    Cultivated extensively in our area for the tuber (coco-yam) and frequently naturalized
    Leaves
    The large leaves are seldom accompanied by flowers.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    Probably originated in tropical Asia, but has been cultivated by man since ancient times (‘Taro’, ‘Eddoa’, ‘Chinese Eddoe’, ‘Mayugwa’, ‘Kalo’ or ‘Timba’).
    [CATE]
    Use
    The rhizomes, petioles, and inflorescences are used as a vegetable. The rhizomes are used medicinally for treating swellings, abscesses, snake and insect bites, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, India, Laos, Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Azores, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Colombia, Congo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Easter Is., Ecuador, Florida, Galápagos, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kermadec Is., Korea, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Maldives, Marquesas, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Morocco, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Sardegna, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Texas, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2005 Acevedo-Rdgz, P. [14450], Puerto Rico K000731707
    Jun 29, 2001 Utteridge, T.M.A. [411], Indonesia 64566.000
    Jun 20, 2000 Johns, R.J. [9247], New Guinea 62494.000
    Zambia 16893.000
    22436.000
    Boyce, P.C. [976], Thailand 60529.000
    Willis, F.R. [284], Indonesia 71459.000

    First published in H.W.Schott & S.L.Endlicher, Melet. Bot.: 18 (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Funez, L.A. & al. (2017). Fifty-five new records of vascular plants, and other discoveries for the flora of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 221-275.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Gogoi, R. & Borah, S. (2013). Two new species and a new record for Colocasia (Araceae: Colocasieae) from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 65: 27-37.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Moreira de Andrade, I. & al. (2013). The Araceae in Ceará, Brazil: humid forest plants in semi-arid region Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 64: 445-477.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boyce, P.C., Sookchaloem, D., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Gusman, G., Jacobsen, N., Idei, T. & Nguyen, V.D. (2012). Flora of Thailand 11(2): 101-325. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Mansor, M., Boyce, P.C., Othman, A.S. & Sulaiman, B. (2012). The Araceae of peninsular Malaysia: 1-146. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.
    • Kurniawan, A., Adjie, B. & Boyce, P.C. (2011). Studies on the Araceae of Sulawesi I: New taxa of Schismatoglottis and Homalomena, and a preliminary checklist and keys for Sulawesi Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 61: 40-50.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hernandez, J. (2007). In Hawaiian rainforests: exotic aroid ecologies Aroideana 30: 91-97.
    • Schinini, A. (2006). Adenda a las Araceae de la flora del Paraguay Rojasiana 7(2): 51-62.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Ara, H., & Abul Hassan, M. (2005). New records of three aroids from Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 12: 25-32.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Albano, P.-O. (2003). La Conaissance des Plantes Exotiques: 1-324. Édisud, Aix-en-Provence.
    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ara, H. (2001). An Annotated Checklist of Aroids of Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 19-34.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Morton, W. Afr. Lilies & Orch. fig. 60.
    • A. F. Hill in Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard 7: 113(1939)
    • in Schott and Endl., Melet. 1: 18 (1832)
    CATE Araceae
    • Yuzammi & Hay, A. Colocasia in Araceae (Unpublished) Flora Malesiana.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Funez, L.A. & al. (2017). Fifty-five new records of vascular plants, and other discoveries for the flora of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 221-275.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Moreira de Andrade, I. & al. (2013). The Araceae in Ceará, Brazil: humid forest plants in semi-arid region Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 64: 445-477.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Haigh, A. & Boyce, P.C. (2012). Flora Zambesiaca 12(1): 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Kurniawan, A., Adjie, B. & Boyce, P.C. (2011). Studies on the Araceae of Sulawesi I: New taxa of Schismatoglottis and Homalomena, and a preliminary checklist and keys for Sulawesi Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica 61: 40-50.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2010). Flora of China 23: 1-515. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Hernandez, J. (2007). In Hawaiian rainforests: exotic aroid ecologies Aroideana 30: 91-97.
    • Schinini, A. (2006). Adenda a las Araceae de la flora del Paraguay Rojasiana 7(2): 51-62.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2005). Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 52: 1-415.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Ara, H. (2001). An Annotated Checklist of Aroids of Bangladesh Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 8(2): 19-34.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Berhaut, J. (1988). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 9: 1-522. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1975). Vascular plants of Aitutaki Atoll Research Bulletin 190: 73-84.
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    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/