1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium pycnophyllum Phil.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. Chile.

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, Región de Atacama, Prov. Chañaral, Cachinal de la Costa, Dec. 1853, R. A. Philippi s.n. (holotype SGO 54374 [photo F, GH, NY, US], isotype W 12981).
    Habit
    Low and globose erect shrub, (0.2 –) 0.4 – 1.0 (− 1.5) m tall, profusely branched, with short branches, densely foliose to the apex
    Stem
    Stems and foliage densely covered by short, substrigose and incane pubescence, somewhat glutinous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 16 leaves, sessile, succulent, linear, oblong-linear or oblong-ovate, 3.5 – 12 (− 16) × 0.7 – 3 (− 4.5) mm, sub-terete due to the strongly revolute margins; lamina pubescent, green to greyish-green, margin entire, base and apex obtuse, veins inconspicuous, pubescence short, incane, strigose
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, globose, dichotomously branched, to c. 5 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, alternate, erect, aromatic. Calyx cylindrical, pale green; calyx lobes linear, fused only at the base or rarely up to the middle, strigose on both sides, 2.5 – 6.5 × 0.5 – 1 mm, free portion 0.5 – 5 mm long, apex acute or rarely obtuse
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, hispid outside, white with yellow throat, becoming purplish or violet; limb horizontally spreading, 6 – 12 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube almost twice as long as the calyx, 6 – 10 (− 12.5) mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included; filaments adnate to petals; anthers oblong, glabrous, base cordate, apex obtuse, 2 – 2.5 mm long, generally located above the apex of the stigmatic head or shortly overlapping it
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, c. 0.5 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style hispid, c. 1.3 – 1.7 mm long, longer than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, 0.8 – 1.2 × 0.4 – 0.8 mm, column hispid
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, spherical, rugose, glabrous, dark brown, 1.5 – 2.5 mm diam., 4-seeded, not falling apart at maturity, dispersed together with the calyx
    Pollen
    Pollen prolate, 26 – 29.5 × 17 – 18.5 μm Amb lobes not deep Endoapertures c. 5 μm diam., circular or somewhat lalongate and then contracted at the centre Exine thickness c. 1.3 μm, without differences between apocolpia and mesocolpia (from Ricardi 3134 in Marticorena 1968)
    Distribution
    Coastal dry areas of the provinces of Chañaral (Región de Atacama) and Antofagasta (Región de Antofagasta) in Chile, 23°28' – 27°4'S (Map 2).
    Ecology
    A xerophyte of low areas next to the coast, on sandy substrates, alluvial foothills, and gravelly hillsides or on the eastern plains of the coastal Cordillera (see Johnston 1929), between sea level and 950 m. Never found in the fog zone. Locally dominant in the vegetation together with Nolana villosa (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. (Solanaceae), Frankenia chilensis C. Presl (Frankeniaceae), Gypothmanium pinifolium Phil. (Asteraceae), Heliotropium linariifolium (Heliotropiaceae) (Reiche 1911). It has also been reported from the coastal dunes, where the dominant species are Nolana mollis (Phil.) I. M. Johnst. (Solanaceae) and Tetragonia maritima Barnéoud (Aizoaceae) (Kohler 1970).
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC), see Luebert (2010).
    Phenology

    September to November.

    Note

    The epithet pycnophyllum refers to its dense foliage.

    A very distinct species from the coastal Atacama Desert. In gross habit it resembles the other species of sect. Cochranea with conspicuous pubescence, but it differs from all other species of the section in its strongly revolute leaves and in its hispid style and stigmatic head, a combination of characters that is only present in the distantly related Old World species Heliotropium supinum L. and H. drepanophyllum Baker (Hilger 1987; Verdcourt 1988). In the phylogenetic analysis of Luebert & Wen (2008) this species was resolved as sister to the remainder of the section.

    Vernacular
    Palo negro (Spanish).
    [KBu]
    Use
    Riedemann et al. (2006) suggest its potential use as an ornamental.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North

    Heliotropium pycnophyllum Phil. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Atacam.: 38 (1860)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 215)
    • Marticorena (1968: 45)
    • Johnston (1928b: 35)
    • Reiche (1907: 2381910: 196)
    • (Philippi 1860a: 38)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0