1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium steudneri Vatke

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, S. Arabian Peninsula.

    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Erect or procumbent perennial herb 60–90 cm. high, woody to the base, sometimes with a thick rootstock; stems and branches ± densely clothed with short appressed hairs with a few longer spreading ones.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, sessile or with petiole up to 6 mm. long; lamina 20–60(80) x 4–15 mm., lanceolate, pubescent to rough above, pubescent to subglabrous below, acute to obtuse at apex, cuneate at base and sometimes decurrent on the petiole, margins slightly revolute and sometimes undulate to crisp and with 3–5(6) secondary nerves on each side of the midrib.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes up to 12(18) cm. long when full expanded, single or in pairs, terminal.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or subsessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2.5–3.5(4.5) mm. long, hairy outside, hairy to glabrous inside; lobes narrowly triangular to linear, obtuse, stellate-spreading after the nutlets are shed.
    Corolla
    Corolla quite white or with yellow throat; tube 3.5–5.5 mm. long, appressed hairy outside, glabrous inside; lobes 1.3–2.0 x 1.1–1.8 mm. oblong to subquadrate, obtuse to truncate, usually with very undulate margins, unequal, spreading.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the middle of the corolla tube; anthers 1.4–1.8 mm. long, oblong, apiculate, glabrous, often glaucous, subsessile.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid-conical, glabrous.
    Pistil
    Style 1.0–1.5 mm. long, terete, glabrous; stigmatic ring 0.5–0.7 mm. in diam.; sterile appendix 0.7–1.0 mm. long, as broad at the base as the stigmatic ring, papillose.
    Fruits
    Fruits 3–4 mm. long, coarsely obpyrifonn and depressed between the pairs of nutlets or more often strongly asymmetrical by abortion of 1–3 seeds, smooth, glabrous; nutlets connate in pairs, each pair emarginate at apex.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Perennial ± erect or spreading herb, sometimes subshrubby, 0.15–1 m. tall; stems branched, usually distinctly woody below, several from a woody rootstock, densely ± persistently hairy with spreading and short ± adpressed white hairs, or all adpressed; lower stems with ± glabrous fissured epidermis.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrowly elliptic to elliptic- lanceolate or oblong, 0.7–9(–12.5) cm. long, 0.4–2.5(–3.2) cm. wide, ± acute at the apex, cuneate at the base, often obscurely crenulate and sometimes distinctly wrinkled, frequently distinctly bullate above with venation impressed, sparsely to very densely covered with long and short white hairs above and mainly on raised nerves beneath with rest of lower surface with only much shorter hairs or ± granular; petiole mostly short (to ± 1.2 cm.), only about 1/10 the length of the lamina or even obsolete.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes mostly long and simple but often 2–3-branched, very short and scorpioid at first, soon extending to 5–20(–37) cm. long, the peduncle 1.5–7 cm. long, the axes with long and short hairs; flowers sessile, often foul-smelling.
    Calyx
    Calyx very variable, 2.5–4.5(–5.5) mm. long, densely pubescent, lobed ± to the base, the lobes linear-lanceolate, 0.5 mm. wide, tapering.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or creamy yellow with yellow to deep olive centre; tube narrowly funnel-shaped above and pubescent, narrower and glabrous at the base, 4–5.5 mm. long; lobes obovate-oblong or oblong, 2–3 mm. long, 1.5–1.8 mm. wide, rounded at apex, strongly reticulate veined.
    Anthers
    Anthers variably placed in upper middle part of the tube or even below the middle but tips not exserted.
    Style
    Style (0.5–)0.6–2 mm. long; stigma conical with narrowed tip, 0.8–1.8 mm. long, papillate with short stiff hairs, often shortly bilobed at the tip, each lobe again shortly bifid.
    Fruits
    Nutlets 2, somewhat flanged where they join and with an asymmetrical shallow narrow groove from apex to base and often lateral elliptic depressions on the junction. Fruit depressed ovoid, 2.5–3 mm. tall, 3.5 mm. wide, glabrous, slightly rugulose.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Erect unbranched annual or shrubby often straggling perennial with woody stems and spreading lateral branches 10–60 cm. tall and up to 1 m. wide; stems with very sparse to fairly dense spreading or ± adpressed bristly white hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves lanceolate or elliptic- lanceolate to elliptic-ovate, 2–9.5 cm. long, 0.6–4 cm. wide, usually narrowly acute at the apex but ± rounded in some variants, very gradually attenuate into the 0.3–2.5 cm. long petiole at the base, sometimes slightly crenulate, bristly pubescent on both sides with rather short subappressed stiff bulbous-based hairs and sometimes granular-tuberculate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences bifid or unbranched, less often 3-fid, the cymes at first short and scorpioid, later long and spike-like, 3–19 cm. long; peduncles up to 15 cm. long; flowers sessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes linear-lanceolate, (1–)2–3(–5) mm. long, usually ± widened at base, up to ± 0.5 mm. wide, 1/4–2/3 the length of the corolla-tube, very variable, bristly pubescent to ± glabrous.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, the centre mostly yellowish and lobes sometimes with dark brown marginal line; tube 2–7 mm. long, swollen below middle, mostly with few adpressed hairs at apex or sparsely bristly pubescent; lobes ovate or oblong, 1–3 mm. long, 1–2.5 mm. wide.
    Style
    Style ± 1–1.2 mm. long, the stigmatic cone 0.8–1 mm. long, narrowed above.
    Fruits
    Fruit depressed ovoid, ± 2–2.2 mm. long, 3.2–4 mm. wide, with 2 nutlets; nutlets with curvilinear depressed area near suture which forms an oblique sinus where it meets apex of nutlet but apex scarcely 2-horned or in some variants distinctly symmetrically 2-horned.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Herb with erect, straggling or prostrate sparsely to much-branched stems forming tangled clumps 0.9–1.5 m. across and 15 cm. tall from a long slender annual (or ?sometimes perennial) root; stems scabrid with very few to sparse upwardly directed bristly tubercle-based hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves ± subsucculent, mostly opposite, usually yellowish green, elliptic to ovate-elliptic, 1–3.5(–5.5) cm. long, 0.4–2.2 cm. wide, narrowly rounded to ‘bluntly acute’ at the apex, cuneate into the 0.5–1.4 cm. long petiole, with rather scattered to rarely ± dense short very broadly based hairs from cystolith spots, sometimes restricted to margins and main nerves.
    Flowers
    Flowers in long slender spike-like unbranched scorpioid cymes 7–23 cm. long; peduncle 2.5–5 cm. long, glabrous or with scattered hairs.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.5–2 mm. long; lobes linear-lanceolate, glabrous or with scattered hairs.
    Corolla
    Corolla with white limb and greenish yellow tube; tube 3–4.5 mm. long, swollen in middle in dry state, glabrous or with scattered hairs; lobes ± unequal, obovate-spathulate, 1.5–2.5 mm. long and wide.
    Stamens
    Stamens placed just above middle of tube, the anthers 0.7 mm. long.
    Style
    Style 0.8 mm. long; stigma conical, 0.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Nutlets obliquely ovoid, 2–2.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide with distinct median groove bounded by raised areas on each side then outer areas lower with slight groove between; main groove often asymmetric at tip of nutlet; 2 main plus 3 sterile loculi in section.
    Figures
    Fig. 14/5, p.54.
    Habitat
    Above high-tide in typical littoral associations of Cocos, Hyphaene, Guettarda, Triainolepis, Scaevola, Hibiscus tiliaceus, etc. but also on coral hillocks by shore and occasionally by roadsides and in cultivations; ± sea-level–15 m.
    Distribution
    K7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Oman, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Heliotropium steudneri Vatke appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1987 Lugard, E.J. [77], Botswana K000418762 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1987 Lugar, F.D. [139], Botswana K000418763 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1966 Holub, E. [s.n.], South Africa K000418744
    unknown [219], South Africa K000418745
    Verdcourt [3668], Kenya K000418773 holotype
    Jun 1, 1998 Beccari, O. [145], Ethiopia Heliotropium eduardii K000418790 isotype
    Jan 1, 1993 Burchell [1714], South Africa Heliotropium nelsonii K000418736
    Jan 1, 1993 Burchell [1766], South Africa Heliotropium nelsonii K000418737
    Oct 1, 2009 Festo, L. [2479], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum K000614869
    Lye, K.A. [2404], Tanzania Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. mkomaziense K000418774 holotype
    Mar 16, 1987 Hepper, F.N. [6793], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239313
    Mar 16, 1987 Mathew, B. [6720], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239309
    Mar 16, 1987 Mathew, B. [6366], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239318
    Mar 16, 1987 Stannard, B. [942], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239316
    Mar 16, 1987 Mwangangi, O.M. [1368], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239312
    Mar 16, 1987 Newbould, J.G.B. [6934], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239310
    Mar 16, 1987 Newbould, J.G.B. [6788], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239315
    Mar 16, 1987 Wellby, M.S. [s.n.], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239314
    Mar 16, 1987 Fiztkin, E. [5], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239317 holotype
    Mar 16, 1987 Curry, N. [41], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239319
    Luke, Q. [671], Kenya Heliotropium pectinatum subsp. septentrionale K000239311

    First published in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 25: 167 (1875)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Kabuye & Agnew in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 520 (1974).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 776 (1962).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 87 (1956).
    • Bak. & Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 42 (1905).
    • Schweinf, in Ghiká, Pays des Somalis:211 (1898).
    • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 352 (1892).
    • Vatke in Linnaea 43: 318, 320 (1882).
    • Vatke in Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. 25: 167 (1875)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0